Structure of a Flower

Flower is the reproductive organ of a plant. A typical flower consists of accessory parts, essential parts and other parts such as pedicel and thalamus.

The accessory parts of a flower consist of calyx and corolla.

The calyx is outermost part of a flower, usually green in colour and consists of sepals. It protects the delicate inner parts of the flower bud. Calyx is the group of sepals.

Corolla is the second accessory part of the flower, consisting of petals. It is brightly coloured that attract the pollinators for pollination. Corolla is the group of petals.

In addition to these parts, a flower also has stamens and carpels. These are the essential parts of a flower.Stamen (androecium) is the male reproductive organ of the flower while carpel (gynoecium) is the female reproductive organ of the flower.

Stamen consists of anther and filament. The filament is a stalk-like structure that holds the anther.

Anther consists of four pollen sacs. Each pollen sac contains numerous pollen grains.

Carpel consists of stigma, style and ovary. The style holds the sticky stigma.

An ovary contains many ovules which after fertilisation, develop into seeds and the ovary develops into a fruit.

Other parts of flower consist of pedicel and thalamus. Pedicel holds the flower and thalamus bears all the floral parts. These parts may or may not be present in all the flowers.

As the reproductive part of a plant, a flower ensures the continuation of species by the process of reproduction.

Flowers can be of two types namely complete flower and incomplete flower.

Complete flower contains all the four types of floral structures while in incomplete flower one or more sets of floral structures are missing.

The plants in which male and female flowers grow on the same plant are called monoecious plant whereas; the plant in which male and female flowers grow on different plants is called dioecious plant.

Depending upon presence or absence of reproductive organ, the flower can be bisexual or unisexual.There are two types of unisexual flower i.e., staminate flower and pistillate flower.

The pattern of arrangement of a group or a cluster of flowers on a stem is called inflorescence. There are two types of inflorescence i.e., racemose and cymose.

Important types of racemoseinflorescence are raceme, spike, catkin, corymb, umbel, spadix, capitulum,cymose.

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  • Q1

    A mature ovary is a/an

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    fruit.

    Explanation:
    Fruit is a mature ovary. After fertilisation, ovary grows into a fruit and all other parts of the flower fall-off. Thus, fruit is a ripened ovary which encloses seeds within it.
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  • Q2

    Bisexual flowers have both

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    Answer:

    stamen and pistil.

    Explanation:
    Bisexual flowers bear both stamens and pistil together. Stamen is the male reproductive part of the flower and pistil is the female reproductive part of the flower. Mustard, rose and petunia plants have bisexual flowers.
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  • Q3

    Pollen grains are produced by

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    Answer:

    anther.

    Explanation:
    Stamens which are the male reproductive parts of flower, bear anthers on their tips. These anthers contain pollen-grains inside them. Pollen-grains produce male gametes for sexual-reproduction.
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  • Q4

    A flower in which one of the reproductive part is absent is known as

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    Answer:

    unisexual flower.

    Explanation:
    The flowers are called unisexual when they have either male or female reproductive parts. Both the male and female unisexual flowers may be present in the same plant or in different plants. Examples of unisexual flowers are papaya, cucumber etc.
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  • Q5

    The part of a flowering plant which is important for sexual reproduction is

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    Answer:

    flower.

    Explanation:
    Flowers are the reproductive parts of a plant. They perform the function of reproduction i.e. produce new-individuals. Some flowers are unisexual i.e. they contain either the male part or the female part. While, some flowers are bisexual i.e. they contain both male and female parts.
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