Reproduction is a biological process by which organisms produce new individuals of their own kind. There are two modes of reproduction, sexual and asexual reproduction.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction which involves only one parent to produce their offspring.
Vegetative propagation is the simplest method of asexual reproduction by which new plants are produced from any vegetative part of the plant.
Vegetative propagation is of two types, Natural Vegetative Propagation andArtificial Vegetative Propagation.
Vegetative propagation occurs by plant organs other than the seed or spore. It can be done by root, stem and leaf.
Four methods of artificial propagationare layering, cutting, grafting andbud grafting.
The method of producing roots on a stem while it is still attached to the parent plant is called layering. It is of two types, namely; mound layering and aerial layering.
In cutting,mature plants are developed from the portions of any vegetative part of the plant, after placing them in moist soil.
In grafting, a cut stem of one plant (graft) is taken and firmly attached to rootstock of another plant (stock).It is of two types cleft Grafting andwhip grafting.
In Bud grafting method, bud is inserted in a cut made in stem and is allowed to develop as an independent plant.
Tissue culture technique is a modern method of multiplication to obtain desired plants. It is commonly used for ornamental plants.
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Vegetative reproduction in plants like citrus, jasmine and grapevine is done by the process ofMarks:1
Explanation:Layering is a means of plant propagation in which, a portion of an aerial stem grows roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant. Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants.
A clone is defined asMarks:1
genetically similar individuals.
Explanation:Clones are the morphologically and genetically similar individuals produced by the asexual means of reproduction.
The artificial method of formation of new plants is calledMarks:1
Explanation:Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separated from the organism. This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth media, such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, while the more specific term plant tissue culture is used for plants.
Advantage of vegetatively reproducing organism isMarks:1
Explanation:Vegetatively reproduced organisms show genetic similarity in offsprings. This genetic similarity is because the offsprings are produced from a single parent.
The unique method of propagation of banana, orange, rose and jasmine isMarks:1
Explanation:In vegetative reproduction, the new plants that result are new individuals in almost every respect except genetically. Plant parts other than flowers and seeds are used for reproduction.