Disposal of Liquid waste
• Rapid urbanisation, growing consumerism and industrial diversification has led to the generation of significant amount of waste.
• Waste management is the practice of collecting and disposing of the waste produced by human activities.
• Disposal of waste is one of the major tasks of cleanliness of environment and ecosystem.
• Liquid wastes are responsible for the pollution of water bodies. Liquid waste can be of many types such as sewage, agricultural effluents, industrial effluents and water released from the nuclear power plants.
• Different sources of polluted water are domestic wastes, industrial wastes, surface drainage and agricultural runoff.
• The excess amount of minerals present in the water bodies leads to eutrophication.
• Effluent treatment and drainage system are the two methods of water treatment.
• Drainage systemhas been designed to remove the surface or the sub-surface water from the residential, industrial or agricultural areas.
• Drainage system is of two types, small-scale drainage and large-scale drainage.
• Small-scale drainage is carried out on the agricultural lands to remove the surface water from the fields.
• Large-scale drainage is done on flat lands to remove large amount of water. It is mainly practiced in cities and towns.
• Drainage system in cities and towns is of two types storm-water drainage system and sanitary or storm sewer system.
• Bio-medical waste consists of waste generated from hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, pathological laboratories, blood banks, etc.Biomedical waste contains carcinogenic heavy metals, chemicals, preservatives(formalin), plastics;which when burnt produce harmful pollutants.
• E-waste or electronic waste is the waste generated from the discarded electrical or electronic devices. Hazardous and toxic substances found in the e-waste include lead, cadmium, mercury, etc.
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A risk to public health is whenMarks:1
untreated sewage is allowed to flow directly into rivers.
Untreated sewage consists of human excreta, animal wastes, inorganic and organic wastes which are dangerous for public health. When untreated sewage is allowed to flow directly into rivers and used by human beings, they may suffer from water borne diseases, like cholera, typhoid etc.
Any water that has been adversely affected in quality isMarks:1
The water that has been adversely affected in quality by materials like waste from industry, agriculture, botany, construction and pollution are not in the favour of natural environment is known as wastewater.
The process of removing contaminants from waste water is known asMarks:1
The process of removing contaminants from wastewater is known as waste water treatment. These contaminants can be chemical, physical or biological and are removed by physical, chemical and biological processes.
D.D.T. is a type ofMarks:1
Explanation:D.D.T. has been widely used as a chemical pesticide for farming. It degrades very slowly and gets accumulated from one trophic level to another. Its high concentration causes adverse effect on living systems.
The sewage disposed from domestic areas is ofMarks:1
The domestic waste generated from residential areas usually comprises of organic waste. It is decomposed by the micro-organisms to obtain compost. Compost is an excellent manure for the growth of plants.