Disposal of waste: Solid and Gas
• Solid waste is produced due to human activities and can be solid or semi-solid.
• Solid waste can be biodegradable or non-biodegradable.
• Separation of non-biodegradable waste from biodegradable waste is necessary before disposal.
• Sanitary landfills, incineration, composting, vermiculture, biogas production, pelletising and pyrolysis are various methods of solid waste disposal.
• Sanitary landfill is a process of dumping the solid waste in a low lying land area.
• Bio-methanation, which occurs in the presence ofmethanogenic bacteria, is an economic biochemical process that produces a clean and efficient fuel (i.e. biogas), as well as manure.
• Incineration is the process of burning of wastes in the presence of oxygen at high temperature under controlled conditions in furnace. It is a useful technology to deal with large quantities of organic wastes.
• Composting refers to the natural biological process of decomposing the organic waste by microorganisms (bacteria) and converting it into manure under controlled conditions.
• Vermi-composting is a biotechnological process of composting, in which certain species of earthworms are used for converting the organic waste into compost.
• The process of formation of fuel pellets is called pelletisation.
• Pyrolysis refers to the process of burning of waste under anaerobic (oxygen deficient) conditions at high temperature (650ºC to 1000ºC).The main purpose of pyrolysis is to produce gas.
• Electrostatic precipitator and scrubber are mainly used for the removal of particulate from polluted gases.
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Gas produced from biodegradable wastes is calledMarks:1
Biogas is produced from the decomposition of biodegradable wastes. It is used for heating, lighting and cooking.
An example of e-wasteMarks:1
Explanation:E- waste consists of discarded electronic appliances like computers, TVs, transistors, mobile phones etc. They contains harmful substances like lead, cadmium, mercury etc. and valuable substances like Gold, silver, copper etc.
The garbage collected from a city or town is dumped intoMarks:1
Landfill is an area where the garbage collected from a city or town is dumped.
Plant, animal or kitchen waste is collected inMarks:1
green colour dustbin.
Plant, animal or kitchen waste is collected in green colour dustbin.
We should not use the bags made ofMarks:1
The plastic bags should not be used because eatables kept in these bags could be harmful to our health and plastics give out harmful gases on burning.