Waste and its types

Waste is any substance that includes scrap material or effluents, which arise due to any process.

Solid waste is characterised by its size, moisture content and density.

Depending upon the sources, solid waste can be of seven types namely, domestic waste, municipal waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste, bio-medical waste, radioactive waste and E-waste.

Domestic waste includes kitchen waste, plastics, etc.

Municipal waste includes discharge from household, hospitals etc., garbage, ashes and demolition waste.

Waste generated by industries like mining, cement and oil refineries is hazardous to all living organisms.

Agricultural waste includes animal and plant waste, and chemical waste that includes pesticides and fertilisers.

Bio-magnification is the gradual increase in the non-degradable chemicals at each successive trophic level.

Bio-medical waste is generated in hospitals and biotechnological laboratories. It consists of syringes, contaminated bandages, swabs and plastic bottles.

Hospital waste can be categorised into four types:
a)    Infectious Waste
b)    Pathological waste
c)    Pharmaceutical waste
d)    Radioactive waste

There are three types of radioactive waste depending upon the level of waste:
a)    Low level waste
b)    Medium level waste
c)    High level waste

E-waste consists of discarded electronic appliances like computers, TVs, radios, mobile phones etc.

Non-biodegradable wastes like metals, pesticides, plastics, phenolic compounds do not decompose or decomposes slowly and causes harm to living organisms.

Hazardous waste consists of substances that cause serious health problems and harm the environment. For example,radioactive substances, heavy metals, poisonous chemicals, explosives etc.

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  • Q1

    Which of the following is NOT a hazardous waste?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Broken glass

    Explanation:

    Hazardous waste consists of substance that cause serious health problem and harms environment.

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  • Q2

    Which of the following is the valuable substance of e-waste?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Silver

    Explanation:

    Silver is ideal for electronic products. It has the best thermal and electrical conductor of all the metal.

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  • Q3

    Name the harmful substance, which is released from e-waste.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Lead

    Explanation:

    E-waste consists of discarded electronic appliances like computers, TVs, radios, mobile phones etc. It contains harmful substances like  lead, cadmium, mercury etc.

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  • Q4

    Which of the following is used to eliminate insects from agricultural filed?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Insecticides

    Explanation:

    Insecticides are the toxic chemicals, which are used to eliminate insects from the agriculture filed.

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  • Q5

    Which of the following is a bio-degradable waste?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Paper

    Explanation:

    Biodegradable waste is non-toxic organic matter that includes paper, kitchen waste, garden waste and human waste.

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