The Conditions that Favour Life on Earth

  • Life on the earth exists in a narrow zone called Biosphere. All the necessities for life are fond in this zone. It is the narrow realm of contact and interaction among Atmosphere, Lithosphere and Hydrosphere.
  • Energy that brings these three domains together is that of the sun. Life exists within the junction of these three realms.
  • Relationships and interdependence between life forms and their surroundings exist in biosphere.  Life is found in two forms within the biosphere. These are plant kingdom and animal kingdom.
  • Upper crust of the earth, ending at the maximum depth of organic life, is called the Biogeosphere.
  • Naturally occurring communities with their particular climatic types are called biomes.
  • Major biomes are tundra, coniferous forests, temperate forests, tropical rainforests, temperate grasslands and hot deserts.
  • A system of organisms together with their non-living environment is known as an ecosystem.
  • Two basic components of an ecosystem are abiotic components like, air, light, soil, temperature and water, and biotic components like plants and animals.
  • Ecosystem concept can be applied to any situation or region within the biosphere. No organism exists in isolation. All organisms function in relation to their non-living environment.
  • Cycles of production-consumption-decomposition and production are interdependent.
  • Rate of production of organic matter is known as productivity.
  • Life giving cycles are necessary for balancing the factors necessary for life. Major life-giving cycles are Energy budget, Water cycle, Nutrition cycle, Carbon cycle, etc.
  • Energy budget of the lifecycles are maintained by the energy from the sun.
  • Water cycle is the cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving evaporation, condensation and precipitation.
  • Nutrition cycle represents a relationship between living and non-living organisms in our environment.
  • Carbon cycle involves the chain of methods by which carbon compounds are inter transformed in the environment, involving the inclusion of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere through respiration, and the burning of fossil fuels.
  • Natural environment on the earth is divided into two main ecosystems. These are marine ecosystem, and terrestrial ecosystem.
  • Humans make their homes in terrestrial ecosystem. Terrestrial system is further divided into forests, grasslands, and deserts.
  • Man is able to make modifications in any ecosystem according to his needs.
  • Mankind is dependent on biodiversity. Biodiversity is life in totality on the earth. It includes all types of biomes, ecosystems and living organisms that live within it.

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  • Q1

    In what forms is life found in the biosphere?


    Life in biosphere is chiefly found in two forms – the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom.

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  • Q2

    Name some major biomes on earth.


    Some major biomes are tundra, hot deserts, coniferous forests, tropical rainforests, temperate forests and grasslands.

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  • Q3

    Define ‘atmosphere’.


    The envelope of air surrounding the earth is known as atmosphere.

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  • Q4

    What is water-cycle?


    Water cycle is the movement of water between the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere.

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  • Q5

    Define ‘ecosystem’.


    A system of organisms with their non-living environment is known as ecosystem.

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