Effects of Pollution and Preventive Measures
• We confront air pollution the moment we set our foot outside the home. Water pollution has converted our once clean rivers into sewages. Irresponsible dumping of garbage here and there has led to an alarming level of soil pollution. Quest for nuclear weapons in this insecure world has given dangerous dimensions to nuclear pollution.
• Can we do anything to stop these various types of pollutions?
• There are different methods of abatement of pollution. Different types of pollution needs different methods to control them.
• Most effective methods to control air pollution are source correction methods, and pollution control equipment.
• In Source correction method, there is an emphasis on prevention of formation of pollutants or minimising their emission at the source itself.
• Pollution control equipments are chosen by keeping in mind the volume, physical and chemical properties and size of particulate matter.
• Water pollution can be controlled by use of non-point sources, point sources and also installation of primary, secondary and tertiary treatment plants.
• Soil pollution can be controlled by the methods like open dumping, sanitary landfills, composting, incineration, and segregation.
a. Open dumping: In this method waste materials are dumped in open low lands. It is the cheapest method of dumping and does not need much planning.
b. Sanitary landfills: In this method, waste is packed and dumped at the site and is covered with earth. Insects and rodents are prevented from entering into the landfill.
c. Composting: It is an aerobic method of decomposing solid wastes. Moisture content is an important factor in biological breakdown of the waste.
d. Incineration: There is a scarcity of waste disposal sites in the cities. Process of incineration is, therefore used to dispose of the wastes. It involves burning of wastes at a very high temperature.
e. Segregation: Various types of bins are used to segregate different materials. Each type of material is used separately by reusing or recycling them.
• Nuclear pollution is also one of the problems, which we are facing today. It can be controlled by following measures radiation exposure protection, protection from radiation contamination, controlled area, collection, storage and disposal.
• For controlling the pollution continuous efforts of human beings are required and also a willingness to keep the environment pollution free.