Effects of Pollution

  • Air pollution is the release of toxic materials into the air from various sources of pollution. A variety of pollutants are released in the air.
  • Air pollution can affect the environment, human health, plants, animals and materials.
  • Effects on human health by air pollution depend on duration of exposure and, the concentration of pollutants.
  • Polluted particulate matter settle as a layer on the leaves and grass. Animals, which feed on such leaves and grass, get poisoned.
  • Air pollution also has adverse effects on materials, like painted surfaces, fabrics and buildings are damaged by soot, dust and, fumes. Sulphuric acid mist damages marble and limestone.
  • Water pollution strongly impacts the balance in nature. It also affects environment and human beings. The ultimate impact is on all the living organisms.
  • Effects of water pollution on marine life are visible in two phenomena Eutrophication and Biomagnification.
  • Human beings are also affected by water pollution as polluted water may cause several diseases.
  • Industrial and chemical wastes dumped in the soil and nitrogenous fertilisers lead to loss of fertility and productivity of the soil.
  • Toxic chemicals present in the soil, can pose potential risk to the ecosystem. It may also affect humans, plants and animals.
  • Radioactive wastes emit radiations, which causes radioactive pollution. Radioactive pollution is very damaging to the environment. Radioactive threat to the environment comes from nuclear reactors, nuclear-powered vessels, etc. Radioactive radiations cause harmful impacts on living beings.
  • Two catastrophic industrial accidents, which the mankind witnessed, are Bhopal gas tragedy and Chernobyl disaster.
  • Bhopal gas tragedy took place on the night of December 2-3, 1984 at Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. The Bhopal gas tragedy is leak of Methyl isocyanate gas along with other chemicals in the atmosphere accidently. Total of 3,787 deaths were reported according to the Government.
  • Chernobyl disaster took place at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine on 26 April, 1986. The core of the reactor exploded blowing radioactive gases into the air.
  • About 7, 00,000 people were exposed to the radiation.

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  • Q1

    The resource used as a cleaner fuel is

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    CNG.

    Explanation:

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.

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  • Q2

    The gas responsible for greenhouse effect is

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    carbon dioxide.

    Explanation:

    Carbon dioxide is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.

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  • Q3

    Which of the following is a poisonous gas forming acid rain and emitted by Mathura oil refinery in and around Taj Mahal?

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    SO2

    Explanation:

    The Mathura oil refinery, situated near the Taj Mahal, emits sulphur dioxide (SO 2) in large quantity into the atmosphere.

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  • Q4

    The Taj Mahal is being affected because of

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    air pollution.

    Explanation:

    The brown tone being observed on the white marble of the Taj Mahal is caused by air pollution.

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  • Q5

    Ozone layer is depleting due to the presence of

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    chlorofluorocarbons.

    Explanation:

    A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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