Humidity and Condensation

  • Hydrosphere comprises of water in different forms. Water is present in the form of water vapour, rivers, lakes and oceans, glaciers and underground water.
  • Earth is the only planet with large amount of surface water. More than 71% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Rivers and open lakes are the fresh water bodies.
  • Seas, oceans and closed lakes are the salt water bodies.
  • Oceans are the bodies of saline water, which form a large part of the earth’s hydrosphere. There are five major oceans in the world. These are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Southern Ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean is the deepest and the largest ocean, which covers one-third of the earth’s surface. This ocean is bounded by Asia, Australia, North America and South America. Mariana Trench the deepest point of the world’s oceans is located in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world. It is bounded by the North America and South America on the Western side and Europe and Africa on the Eastern side.
  • The Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country: India. It is the third largest ocean in the world.
  • The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and the shallowest ocean and is located within the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere. The North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.
  • The Southern Ocean is the fourth-largest ocean in the world. It extends from the coast of Antarctica to 60 degrees south latitude.
  • Continents and oceans are not evenly distributed between the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere.
  • This unequal distribution of land and water influences the pattern of climate on the earth. Land and water distribution influences the earth’s pattern of temperature and direction of the movement of air masses.
  • Different features associated with oceans are isthmus, bay, gulf, island, strait, and reef.
  • Isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger masses of land.
  • Bay is formed when the ocean overflows the coastline, which has sunk and eroded because of the movement in the earth’s crust.
  • Gulf is a part of ocean that penetrates into the land.
  • A strait is a narrow passage of water that connects two large water bodies.
  • Land surrounded by the water from all sides is known as an island. The group of islands is known as archipelago. Very small islands are called islets.
  • On the basis of origin, islands are classified into two categories, namely continental islands, and oceanic islands.
  • Reefs are the islands surrounded by limestone structure. Reef builds up from the skeletons of dead polyps. These islands contain the shells of small organisms known as coral. There are three types of coral reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atoll.

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