Weather and Climate

  • The atmospheric conditions of the place where we live in, keep on changing every day. The state of the atmosphere at any particular place or time is called weather.
  • The average weather condition of a place for a longer period of time represents the climate of a place.
  • Elements of weather and climate are temperature, air pressure, wind and moisture.
  • The factors that influence the climate of a place are latitude, altitude, land and sea contrast, wind direction, direction of mountain ranges, ocean currents, and vegetation.
  • Latitude affects the temperature of a place. Temperature decreases as the distance from the equator increases.
  • The density of air decreases with increase in height. Amount of heat absorbed decreases with height. There is a fall in temperature of 1°C for every 165 metres of height in troposphere.
  • Land and sea contrast also affects climate as land and water absorb Sun’s heat in different amounts. Land heats up and cools down faster than water. Winds can make an area warmer or colder depending on the direction they are blowing from. Mountains act as barriers to the movement of wind. They affect both temperature and rainfall.  Ocean currents transfer heat from lower latitudes to higher latitudes. They affect temperatures of the coastal areas.  Vegetation reduces the temperature by releasing moisture in the air.  Climate affects us in several ways. It determines almost all the aspects of human life like clothing, housing, food, trade and mode of living. Evolution of human beings as a separate species is a result of climatic changes in the past. Different types of clothes are worn in different regions.  Different types of houses are built in different regions. Crops grown in a particular area depends on the climate of that area. Traditional modes of living in a particular region are also related to the climate.

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  • Q1

    How the temperature contrasts of land and oceans affects the climate?

    Marks:2
    Answer:

    Land heats up and also cools down faster than water and due to this land is warmer than the oceans in winter. Thus oceans have a moderating influence on the temperature of coastal places. Therefore places near the sea are cool in summer and warm in winter and interior continents are hot in summer and cold in winter.

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  • Q2

    How the rainfall gets affected with direction of mountain ranges? Explain with a diagram.

    Marks:3
    Answer:

    The amount of rainfall increases with height along a windward side of mountain as more condensation occurs with decrease in temperature.

    As the wind moves down to the leeward side of the mountain, the amount of rainfall decreases since the winds are quite dry not only because they shed their moisture but also, as the air moves down the slope it warms up again reducing the chances of rain.

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  • Q3

    How the altitude affects the temperature of any area?

    Marks:2
    Answer:

    As height increases, the density of air decreases. Thus, the amount of heat absorbed decreases with height. The average rate of change of temperature is 1°C for every 165 m of height. Thus with an increase in height above the surface of the Earth, the temperature decreases.

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  • Q4

    How the temperature is affected by the latitude?

    Marks:2
    Answer:

    The temperature decreases as the distance increases from the Equator:
    i. The region near the Equator get more direct rays of the Sun. the direct rays are concentrated over a smaller area and so they heat up the Earth more.
    ii. As the distance from the Equator increases, due to the curvature, the sun’s rays strike the Earth at an angle. The slanting rays of the sun spread the heat over a larger area and so do not heat to the same extent as the direct rays.

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  • Q5

    Give the elements which express the nature of weather and climate.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    The nature of weather and climate are expressed by the following elements-temperature, moisture, pressure and wind.

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