The atmospheric conditions of the place where we live in, keep on changing every day. The state of the atmosphere at any particular place or time is called weather.
The average weather condition of a place for a longer period of time represents the climate of a place.
Elements of weather and climate are temperature, air pressure, wind and moisture.
The factors that influence the climate of a place are latitude, altitude, land and sea contrast, wind direction, direction of mountain ranges, ocean currents, and vegetation.
Latitude affects the temperature of a place. Temperature decreases as the distance from the equator increases.
The density of air decreases with increase in height. Amount of heat absorbed decreases with height. There is a fall in temperature of 1°C for every 165 metres of height in troposphere.
Land and sea contrast also affects climate as land and water absorb Sun’s heat in different amounts. Land heats up and cools down faster than water. Winds can make an area warmer or colder depending on the direction they are blowing from. Mountains act as barriers to the movement of wind. They affect both temperature and rainfall. Ocean currents transfer heat from lower latitudes to higher latitudes. They affect temperatures of the coastal areas. Vegetation reduces the temperature by releasing moisture in the air. Climate affects us in several ways. It determines almost all the aspects of human life like clothing, housing, food, trade and mode of living. Evolution of human beings as a separate species is a result of climatic changes in the past. Different types of clothes are worn in different regions. Different types of houses are built in different regions. Crops grown in a particular area depends on the climate of that area. Traditional modes of living in a particular region are also related to the climate.