A natural region is a group of areas where the conditions of relief, temperature, rainfall and natural vegetation are more or less similar.
The equatorial region covers only 6 % of the Earth's surface. It contains more than 1/2 of the world's plant and animal species. It is also known as Rain forest, Selvas or the Evergreen forest.
The equatorial region extends from 0° to 10° in the North as well as South.
It is distributed in the continents of South America, Africa and Asia.
The climate of the region is characterised by high temperature and high humidity. The annual mean temperature is 27°C. The mean annual rainfall is 250 cm. The region receives convectional type of rain.
It has a thick layer of forest, which are evergreen in nature. Abundance of forest is a result of high temperature, heavy rainfall and plenty of sunlight.
Hundreds of types of hardwood trees grow in tropical rainforests, like: mahogany, rosewood and ebony.
Rainforests are so dense that the trees have to fight for sunlight. They grow very tall and spread out their upper branches to catch more light.
The equatorial forest consists of four distinct layers, comprising of emergent layer, canopy, understory and forest floor.
The major trees of the equatorial region are Mahogany, Rosewood, Ebony, Cinchona, Rubber and Palm.
The equatorial region is home to varied species of wildlife. Animals found in this region are chimpanzees, monkeys, gorillas, buffaloes, leopards crocodiles and hippopotamuses.
Bright coloured reptiles, birds and insects are common.
Though the natural conditions are similar in all equatorial regions, however the human life and economic development differs from region to region.
Major settled equatorial parts of the world are Congo Basin, Amazon Basin, Malaysia and Indonesia.
The natives of the Congo basin are the pygmies. The Amazon basin is inhabited by the Native Indians. The natives of Malaysia are native Semangs. The natives of Indonesia are Kubus of Sumatra, the Dayaks of Borneo, and the Danis of Irian Jaya. Many people who live in rainforests find that using boats on rivers is the easiest way to travel around.