- Tundra region lies beyond the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere. The term tundra comes through Russian tundra means "uplands", "treeless mountain tract". There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra.
- The tundra region covers the coastal strips of Canada, Alaska and Greenland in North America, coastal strips of Scandinavia and Iceland in Europe, and Arctic coast of Russia in Asia.
- Tundra region experiences extremely cold climate due to very low temperature.
- Temperature remains below freezing point for eight months of a year.
- Sun never rises above the horizon for several months in winter. This results in uninterrupted twilight in Tundra region for many days.
- Aurora displays are seen in the sky during winters. They occur when charged particles from the Sun interact with gases in the Earth’s atmosphere.
- Tundra stands out as a treeless region. Very few plants survive due to harsh climate.
- Plants, which grow are small and stay close to the ground. Variety of flowering plants grows during summer. Some hardy grasses grow in the coastal lowlands. This region is called the grassy tundra.
- Common plants found in this region are sedges, mosses, lichens and grasses.
- Large warm-blooded animals, which lose less heat, survive here. These animals are well insulated by thick layer of fat and dense fur. Such animals are polar bear, musk ox, wolves, and reindeer. Reindeer is the most important animal of tundra.
- Tundra region is sparsely populated.
- People living in Tundra region are Inuit, Saami, Samoyeds, Yakuts, and Chukchi.
- Their way of life is well adapted to the extreme climatic conditions of the Tundra region.
- Many recent changes and Modern developments have taken place in the tundra region. Old way of living is now replaced with modern and technologically advanced ways.
- Many minerals are discovered in Alaska and eastern Siberia region. Various steps are taken to engage people in scientific activity. Better connectivity to the world is provided by developing polar air routes.
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In eastern and central Tundra regions, houses are built fromMarks:1
Snow houses are used only in the eastern and central regions. They are made from blocks of snow built into a dome. Small snow houses with small tunnels are used during travelling. Large snow houses with longer tunnel are used as residences.
The most important animal of tundra isMarks:1
Caribou is the most important animal of tundra. It provides meat and milk for the people. Skin of caribou is used for making clothes and tents. Bones and sinews are used to make tools. Caribous are hunted during summers and early autumn.
The diurnal range of temperature is very small in the tundra region during summer due toMarks:1
Summers in tundra region last for two to three months only. Sun never sets during the months of summer. Sun remains above the horizon at low angle. The continuous sunlight results in very small diurnal range of temperature.
The sun begins to shine in the tundra aroundMarks:1
The sun begins to shine in the tundra around February-March. Day light increases from two hours to 24 hours for few months. For almost three months from May to July, the sun never sets. But it does not rise overhead and hovers just little above the horizon that results in uninterrupted twilight for many days.
The tundra vegetation includesMarks:1
The tundra vegetation includes mosses, lichens, short grasses, berries and shrubs.