Sources of Pollution
- The world has changed a lot during the past hundred years. From the source of light in our homes to, the way we communicate. While some changes have improved the quality of life, others have affected adversely. Industrialisation and introduction of new technologies haven’t come without any cost. And the cost we pay is degraded environment. Pollution is one of the main side effects of growth.
- Air pollution is the contamination of air by several pollutants like dust, harmful chemicals, smoke, etc.
- It has harmful effects on human beings, plants, animals and the environment.
- Air pollution can be classified in many ways, like according to origin, according to state of matter and according to sources.
- The main sources of air pollution are automobile pollution, industrial air pollution, burning of garbage and brick kilns. Air pollution can be caused by the primary pollutants. Primary pollutants are emitted directly from the sources. They retain the same chemical form in the atmosphere in which they were emitted.
- It includes:
- Volcanic Ash
- Dust and
- Radioactive Compounds
- Vehicular exhausts in metropolitan cities account for:
- 75% of all Carbon Monoxide (CO)
- 45% of all hydrocarbons
- 40% of all oxides and
- 30% of all suspended particulate matter (SPM)
- Water pollution is another major problem faced by the world today. Water pollution is caused by several sources, both natural and man-made.
- Gases, soil, minerals, waste of animals, etc., are the natural elements causing water pollution. The major Man-made sources of water pollution are household detergents and sewage, industrial waste, offshore oil, drilling, oil spills, radioactive waste and thermal pollution.
- Soil is one of the major resources. The main sources of soil pollution are industrial wastes, urban commercial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, bio medical waste, pesticides and weedicides.
- Radioactive pollution is very harmful for living beings. Energetic radiations reaching the earth from outer space are radioactive in nature. But these are not much dangerous for organisms on the earth. The main man-made sources of radioactive pollution are X ray waste, nuclear weapon, atomic reactors and nuclear fuel and radioactive isotopes. Radioactive wastes from atomic reactors are hazardous to living organisms. Both nuclear fuel and coolants, used in atomic reactors spread radioactive pollution. Inert gases escape as vapours and pollute the environment. Radioactive wastes can harm the surroundings even if they are buried deep.
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Incomplete burning of petrol and diesel produceMarks:1
Carbon mono oxide is produced from incomplete burning of petrol and diesel.
CO, CO2, NO2 and smoke are produced fromMarks:1
The automobile vehicles produce high levels of CO, CO2, NO2 and smoke and account for more than 25% of all air pollution nationwide.
About 21% of total volume of air isMarks:1
Total volume of air present in atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen and remaining 1% is made up of other gases.
CFCs are used inMarks:1
CFCs are used in aerosol sprays. A suspension of small particles of a solid or liquid in a gas is called aerosol spray for e.g. smoke.Q5
Petroleum refineries are a major source ofMarks:1
The major gaseous pollutants include sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) as well as ozone (O3). The primary source of these gases is the combustion of fossil fuels in power plants, various industrial processes, and motor vehicles and equipment.