Types of Pollution

  • Pollution means the introduction of contaminants into the environment that disturbs plants, animals and human lives.
  • Pollutant is a foreign substance that pollutes air, water or soil, and causes pollution, which affects the functioning of the ecosystem.
  • There are various types of pollutants.
  • On the basis of degradation, pollutants are of two types: Biodegradable pollutants and Non-Biodegradable pollutants
  •  Biodegradable pollutants can be easily degraded by biological or microbial action, like sewage and domestic garbage.
  • Non-Biodegradable pollutants cannot be degraded by living organisms, like glass, plastics, pesticides, and radioactive substance.
  • On the basis of origin pollutants can be primary or secondary.
  • Primary pollutants are directly released into the environment from the source. For example, ash, smoke, fumes, dust, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
  • Secondary pollutants are formed from the chemical reaction of primary pollutants in the environment. For example, photochemical smog, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and acid rain.
  • On the basis of existence, pollutants can be quantitative and qualitative.
  • Quantitative pollutants are the existing substances that act as a pollutant when they reach up to a critical level. Example: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide.
  • Qualitative pollutants are added to the environment through anthropogenic activities. Example: Pesticides, herbicides and fungicides.
  • Types of pollution can be broadly categorised into: Air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution based on the part of environment.
  • On the basis of origin, pollution can be natural or man-made.
  • On the basis of physical nature of pollutants, pollution can be of following types:
  1. Gaseous pollution
  2. Dust pollution
  3. Thermal pollution
  4. Noise pollution, and
  5. Radioactive pollution
  • It is necessary to take some concrete efforts to keep our environment clean and pollution free. It will contribute in the betterment of our lives and peaceful coexistence of all living beings on earth.

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  • Q1

    An incomplete combustion of fuel causes

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    air pollution.

    Explanation:

    The presence of chemicals in the air causes air pollution, which can cause dangerous medical conditions in humans. It may cause diseases, allergies or death of humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. 

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  • Q2

    The substance that pollutes the air is

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    Answer:

    carbon monoxide.

    Explanation:

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries.

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  • Q3

    Sewage, domestic and agricultural waste are considered as the –

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    Answer:

    Biodegradable pollutant

    Explanation:

    Those pollutants which can be broken down into simpler, harmless, substances in nature in due course of time (by the action of micro-organisms like certain bacteria) are called biodegradable pollutants.

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  • Q4

    The substances that are pollute air, water, soil, etc. is called -

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    Answer:

    Pollutant

    Explanation:

    A substance or condition that contaminates air, water, or soil. Pollutants can be artificial substances, such as pesticides and PCBs, or naturally occurring substances, such as oil or carbon dioxide, that occur in harmful concentrations in a given environment.

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  • Q5

    The process of making air, water, soil etc. dirty or impure and becomes harmful for our health is called-

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    Answer:

    Pollution

    Explanation:

    Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.

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