• An election is a decision-making process, wherein the electorate votes for individuals to run formal offices. In India, elections to Union and State governments are supervised by Election Commission of India. It consists of two Election Commissioners and a Chief Election Commissioner.
• Elections in India can be either direct or indirect. Direct elections happen when voters directly cast votes for persons or party, to run government. Elections to Lok Sabha (Parliament) and State Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha) are examples of direct elections.
• In indirect elections, elected representatives of people elect members to certain formal offices. Under this, President and Vice-President of India are elected by an electoral college, consisting of elected members of Parliament and State Legislative Assemblies.
• In India, general elections take place when people elect candidates to Lok Sabha, as Members of Parliament, and to Vidhan Sabha, called Members of Legislative Assembly.
• Mid-term elections are held in case Lok Sabha, or Vidhan Sabha, gets dissolved, before completion of five years, usually when government falls, due to a No-Confidence Motion. A By-election is held to fill a vacant political office, usually due to member’s death, resignation, or ineligibility due to criminal conviction.
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Elections are a mechanism used toMarks:1
choose people’s representatives.
Explanation:Elections are essential for any representative democracy. They are a mechanism used to choose people’s representatives at regular intervals. Elections allow voters to choose a party whose policies they think would benefit the nation.
In India, the Election Commission was a single member body till -Marks:1
Just before 1989 general elections, two Election Commissioners were appointed, making the body multi-member. Soon after the elections, the Commission reverted to its single member status in 1990. In 1993, two Election Commissioners were once again appointed and the Commission became multi-member again.
Election campaign isMarks:1
meeting of the candidate with the voters.
During the election campaign, the candidates contact their voters. Political leaders address election meetings and discuss their future policies with the common people to mobilize their support.
Democratic elections are the one in whichMarks:1
citizens are free to contest elections.
Explanation:Democratic elections are the one in which all citizens enjoy equal right to adult franchise and right to contest elections. Democratic elections must ensure real choice to the voters in terms of political parties.
The supreme head of the Election Commission in India is theMarks:1
Chief Election Commissioner.
The Election Commission is headed by the Chief Election Commissioner, who is appointed by the President of India.