• Industrial Revolution, first coined by many scholars, refers to rapid changes in fields of society, economy and technology during late 18th- early 19th centuries.
• Due to Enclosure Movement, bigger landlords added land holdings of small farmers to their own. This led to unemployment of farmers, who went to cities in search of factory work.
• Improvement in transport was facilitated by Macadamized roads, laid down by John McAdam, a Scottish engineer.
• As waterways were a cheaper medium of transporting goods than roadways, James Brindley and Thomas Telford constructed several canals, which connected several cities.
• Later, railways emerged as a new cheaper and faster means of transportation that was readily available. Invention of Railway Engines, like ‘Puffing Devil’ and ‘The Blutcher’, facilitated pulling of large weights.
• Inventions of Steamships, by Robert Fulton, and Motor Cars by Daimler, were new inventions in transportation.
• Availability of Coal and Iron led to emergence of towns and factories. Development of Coal and Iron Industry was facilitated by improvement in Iron Smelting process.
• Breakthrough in Iron Smelting was achieved through Blast Furnace, invented by Darbys of Shropshire. Further Improvement in the Blast Furnace took place during 18th century.
• Invention of an engine by Thomas Newcomen, to draw water from mines; and Safety Lamp by Humphrey Davy, led to improvements in Mining Industry. New Inventions, especially in Cotton Industry facilitated Industrial Revolution.
• One major cause of Industrial Revolution was surplus capital, which was accumulated through overseas trade, especially through Triangular Trade Network.
• By 18th century, England achieved Naval Supremacy, which enabled it to protect its maritime trade and colonies.
• Socialism grew as a reaction to concentration of production means by capitalists, while working classes lived in misery. Socialists like Robert Owen proposed idea of Cooperative Socialism, wherein profit was shared among people.
• Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels propounded Scientific Socialism theory, wherein they proposed overthrowing of capitalist system, followed by establishment of classless society and communist state. This led to emergence of socialist movements in many countries, which continued into 20th century.
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In Industrial Britain, the Bill that limited the hours of work for women and young people was theMarks:1
Ten Hours’ Bill.
Explanation:In 1847, the Ten Hours’ Bill was passed after more than 30 years of agitation. This bill limited the working hours for women and young people.
From the 1850s in the Industrial Britain, the percent of workforce that lived in rural areas wasMarks:1
Explanation:During this period the proportion of people living in urban areas went up dramatically. Most of them were industrial workers.
The rights of the people who were suppressed in the Peterloo Massacre were denied by theMarks:1
Explanation:During the Industrial Revolution in England, in August 1819, 80,000 people gathered peacefully at St. Peter’s Fields in Manchester to claim democratic rights of political organisation of public meetings and of the freedom of the press. But they brutally suppressed in the incident known as the Peterloo Massacre. In the same year, the Parliament enacted the Six Acts.
According to the survey of 1842, the average lifespan of workers in Birmingham and Manchester wasMarks:1
15, 17 years.
Explanation:The survey of 1842 revealed that the average lifespan of workers was lower than that of any other social group in cities: it was 15 years in Birmingham and 17 years in Manchester.
According to the survey in 1842, the average lifespan of workers in Birmingham and Manchester wasMarks:1
15 and 17
Explanation:More people died, and died at a younger age, in the new industrial cities, than in the villages they had come from. Half the children failed to survive beyond the age of five.