Jainism and Buddhism
• Sources on Jainism include Jain literature, which comprises twelve angas and upangas. Jain scholars also composed works like Mahapurana, Kalpasutra and Ratnamalika.
• Prominent Buddhist Scriptures include Tripitakas – Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka – as well as Vaipulya Sutras and Jataka Tales – all throw light on Buddhist religion.
• By 6th century BCE, Vedic religion became complex due to expensive sacrifices, rigid and hereditary Varna system, Brahmanical arrogance and difficult Sanskrit language. New thinkers introduced new ideas and new principles of religion.
• Simplicity of Jain and Buddhist teachings helped in spread of both religions. Their nature as liberal religions and their preaching in common language – Pali, also facilitated their spread. Additionally in Buddhism, acceptance of foreigners, development of Buddhist Sangha and royal patronage; all helped in its spread.
• Jainism – was taught by Tirthankaras, of whom the last, Mahavira, was the most well-known. Born as a Kshatriya, he renounced luxury and, after penance, attained spiritual knowledge. He became a Jina (conqueror of self) and his followers are called Jains.
• Mahavira emphasized much on principle of Ahimsa (non-violence). He rejected caste system and God’s existence. In Jainism, attainment of salvation is one’s highest goal in life, which could be attained by following Triratnas.
• Gautama Buddha, in his early life, was a prince of the Sakya clan. During his family life, he witnessed Four Great Sights – an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic. After leaving home, he wandered for attainment of enlightenment, which he achieved by meditation.
• Doctrines of Buddhism are centered on Four Noble Truths and Eight Fold Path. Buddha founded the Sangha, comprising his disciples – Bhikkhus – who lived on alms. Later, women were incorporated into it. Discrimination in the Sangha did not exist, as decisions were taken after general consensus.
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The language of the ordinary people was:Marks:1
Teachings by Buddha were given in the language of ordinary people i.e. Pali, so that, everybody could understand his message.
Buddha's main teaching was based on the fact that:Marks:1
Life is full of sufferings and unhappiness.
Buddha taught that life is full of sufferings and unhappiness because we have unlimited cravings and desires. Buddha described this as thirst or tanha.
Buddha gave his first sermon inMarks:1
Explanation:After attaining enlightment, Buddha went to Sarnath near Varanasi where he gave his first sermon. He preached in Prakrit language, spoken by common people.
Buddha belonged to a small Gana known as theMarks:1
Explanation:Buddha was a Kshatriya. He left the comforts of his home in search of knowledge. He belonged to sakya gana.
The ruler who spread Buddhism outside India was -Marks:1
Ashoka played an important role in the spread of Buddhism. He sent his son and daughter, and many Buddhist missions, to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Burma, Central Asia, China and South-East Asia.