Medieval India: The Delhi Sultanate
• Sources on Delhi Sultanate include inscriptions in Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian languages, coins of rulers and monuments like Qutb Minar, world’s tallest minaret.
• Beginning of Delhi Sultanate started with Qutub-ud-din Aibak who, in his Early Career, was a slave of Muhammad Ghori, and later a general. His help to Muhammad Ghori,in his Indian campaigns, was rewarded with governorship of his North Indian provinces.
• In 1206, Aibak ascended throne after Ghori’s death, establishing Slave dynasty. He was known as Lakh-baksh (giver of lakhs) for his generosity. He constructed Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque and commenced construction of Qutb Minar. He died in 1210 AD, due to an accident.
• The Slave dynasty was replaced with the Khalji dynasty, under Jalaluddin Khalji, who was killed in 1296 by Alauddin Khalji, governor of Allahabad.
• As ruler, Alauddin conquered Gujarat, Malwa, Ranthambor and Chittor. His expeditions against southern kingdoms were led by Malik Kafur. Alauddin also repelled Mongol invasions (1297-1307 CE).
• Alauddin re-organised army, wherein soldiers were paid in cash, to maintain themselves and their cavalry. To prevent corruption, he introduced system of descriptive roll (huliya/chehra) for soldiers and branding (dagh) for horses.
• Land revenue (kharaj), which was raised to half the produce, was calculated to half the produce and its yield. Grazing tax (charai) was also collected.
• Alauddin started practice of price regulation of necessities. Merchants were forced to trade at fixed prices, and had to register themselves under Shahna-i-mandi (superintendent of traders). Shopkeepers found guilty were harshly punished.
• Alauddin was succeeded, in 1316 AD, by Mubarak Shah, who was murdered by Khusrau Khan in 1320. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, who killed him, started Tughlaq dynasty.
• His successor, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51 A.D.) crushed power of nobles and Ulema (Islamic theologians). He recruited officials only on merit basis.
• Muhammad Bin Tughlaq introduced several unsuccessful reforms. High taxation of Doab failed due to famine. His other agrarian reforms failed due to a fruitless survey. His Transfer of Capital (1326-27) from Delhi to Devagiri also failed, as many people died en route, as did more when he returned.
• His Currency Reforms, including token currency, failed miserably, due to minting of counterfeit currency. He also participated in failed expeditions to conquer Central Asia, Kumaon and China.
• Although he conquered several parts of South India, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq faced many revolts, as South India and Bengal became independent. He died in 1351 CE.
• The Sultan had absolute power in running central administration and army. He was assisted by many officials, each taking care of different departments.
• Provinces were divided into iqtas, governed by muqtis/iqtadars. Iqtas were divided into parganas (shiqs), headed by amils, while khuts administered villages.
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Shamsud- din Iltutmish.
Explanation:Raziya Sultan was the first Muslim women ruler in the Sultanate period. She was the daughter of Iltutmish and became a sultan in 1236 AD.
Sayyed dynasty was founded byMarks:1
Explanation:Amir Timur invaded India in 1396 AD and defeated the Tughlaq ruler. He appointed Khizr Khan Sayyed as his deputy to administer his territorial possessions in India. Khizr Khan remained loyal to Timur and ruled in his name.
“Razia was more qualified and able than her brothers” was said byMarks:1
Minhaj- i- Siraj.
Explanation:Minhaj- i- Siraj was the contemporary of Razia Sultan. He was a renowned historian and a prolific writer. He has given the details about the reign of Razia Sultan and of Nasirud- din- Muhammad in his work Tabqaat- i- Nasiri.
The Delhi Sultanate reached its greatest extent under:Marks:1
Under Mohammed bin Tughlaq, the Delhi Sultanate reached its greatest extent after conquering many kingdoms of the Deccan and Southern India.
The ruler who planned an expedition to Central Asia was:Marks:1
Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Muhammad bin Tughalaq recruited large number of soldiers and raised a huge standing army and also paid their salaries in advance. The move was eventually dropped, due to which the Sultan suffered huge monetary losses.