Rural Local Self-Government
• In 1958, the Panchayati Raj system was implemented, on recommendation of Balwant Rai Mehta Committee. 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992, gave it constitutional status.
• A District, governed by a Zila Parishad, is divided into blocks, each headed by a Block Samiti. Each block, in turn, comprises several villages, governed by Panchayats.
• Village panchayats comprise Gram Sabha (village assembly), Gram Panchayat and Nyaya Panchayat. Gram Sabha, comprising registered voters of village, is headed by Pradhan. It is the village legislature.
• Gram Panchayat is the village executive body. Its Sarpanch and Vice-Sarpanch are ex-officio members of Gram Panchayat.
• 11th Schedule of Constitution entrusts Panchayats with development, administration, revenue collection, and judicial functions. The last function is taken care of by Nyaya Panchayat, or Panchayati Adalats.
• At Intermediate level (Block), Panchayat Samiti supervises administration. It comprises all Sarpanchs, Members of Parliament, State Legislative Assemblies and Councils, Block members of Zila Parishad, and Chairperson of Town Area Committee.
• A smaller administrative unit of Panchayat Samiti is led by the Block Development Officer (BDO), a state government officer. Pramukha is the head of the Panchayat Samiti, being a link between villages and district, through community development programmes.
• Zila Parishad stands at apex of Panchayati Raj system. Each district has only one Zila Parishad. It comprises all Panchayat Samiti Pradhans; district MP, MLA and MLC; cooperative societies’ representatives, Municipal Committees and Municipal Boards’ chairpersons; Deputy Commissioners, Collectors or Magistrates; and women/SC/ST representatives. Zila Parishad performs many financial, developmental and civic functions.
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The secretary of the Gram Panchayat is not an elected person but is appointed by -Marks:1
Every Gram Panchayat has a secretary, who is the secretary of the Gram Sabha. The secretary is not an elected person but is appointed by the State Government. He/She is responsible for keeping a record of the Gram Panchayat and the Gram Sabha.
The misuse of village money is prevented by the.....Marks:1
The Gram Sabha
The Gram Sabha prevents the Panchayat from misusing money or favoring certain people in the village.
Q3A panchayat would have at least......Marks:1
5 ward members
Explanation:A Panchayat will have at least five ward members and may have as many as 21 ward members.
In rural areas, people directly participate in the decision-making through -Marks:1
Participation of people plays an important role in the smooth functioning of democracy. Rural area people participate in the decision-making process of the village through the Gram Sabha.
To contest in a Panchayat election, the person must be.....Marks:1
21 years or above
Any person who is 21 years or above can contest for the Panchayat election.