• The period of Dark Ages was followed by Renaissance period, which flourished in 14th-17th centuries, in Europe. It gave new thrust to Art, Literature, Religion, Politics and Science.
• Renaissance occurred due to many factors, one of which was Islamic conquest of Constantinople in 1453, which led to flight of scholars to Italy, from where Renaissance started.
• From twelfth century end, natural disasters and wars in Europe caused decline of Feudalism, which hitherto had hampered socio-cultural progress, leading to stagnation.
• Crusades, fought between Muslims and Christians, reopened trade between East and West, and boosted learning and culture. Progressive ideas also reached Europe from the East.
• In Middle Ages, Pope was Catholic Church’s spiritual head. By thirteenth century, powerful monarchs in European countries challenged Church’s authority. Arrest of Pope Bonafice VIII arrest by Philip IV of France lowered Papal prestige.
• Discovery of New Trade Routes to Africa were made by Henry “the Navigator”, and Bartholomeu Diaz, and to India by Vasco da Gama. Ferdinand Magellan made the first voyage around the world.
• Renaissance ushered Spirit of Inquiry. Copernicus and Galileo revived idea that Earth moves around Sun. Issac Newton propounded Law of Gravitation.
• Kepler laid foundation of Mathematical Astronomy. Friar Roger Bacon made many scientific contributions. Johann Gutenberg invented Printing Press.
• Impact of Renaissance on Art, Literature and Science was most noticeable. Early Renaissance art focused on symmetry and perfect form, whose exponents were Giotto and Donatello.
• High Renaissance are was typified by perspective, space and realism. Depiction of human being in most accurate form was exemplified by works of Leonardo da Vinci, who painted Mona Lisa and The Last Supper.
• In Literature, Renaissance saw production of vernacular literature, replacing Latin and Greek. William Shakespeare, the English playwright, wrote over thirty plays.
• Most popular plays of William Shakespeare are Henry VI, The Comedy of Errors, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, A Winter’s Tale and The Tempest.
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The Renaissance era pioneer in the classical learning was…Marks:1
Petrarch had a profound knowledge in the languages of Latin and Greek; he collected and compiled the works of Plato, and Cicero. His disciple, Boccaccio had also inspired the classical learning.
The Last Judgment is a remarkable Renaissance painting of…Marks:1
Michelangelo was both a painter and sculptor. He lived in Florence and patronized by the Medici family. Later, he went to Rome. The magnificent frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican represent his most brilliant achievement in painting.
The Renaissance era scientist who discovered the heliocentric theory was:Marks:1
The heliocentric theory proved that the Earth is not the centre of the universe, but the Sun. It was first confirmed by Copernicus.
The Renaissance era scientist who laid foundation of the study of the Mathematical Astronomy was -Marks:1
Kepler is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works - Astronomia Nova and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy.
The Renaissance era scientist who was hailed as the ‘father of modern sciences’ was -Marks:1
Friar Roger Bacon
Friar Roger Bacon was the greatest medieval exponent of observation and experiment. His notable contributions were in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, physics and medicine.