The Mughal Empire I

•    Mughal history is known through literary and archaeological sources. Persian was patronised by Mughal Emperors. Many important works in Persian were produced in Akbar’s reign, notably by Abul Fazl, who wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbarnamah.
•    Many other Mughal courtiers, during the reign of Akbar and his successors, also wrote many works, or translated many Hindu classics into Persian. Mughal emperors Jahangir and Aurangzeb also wrote in Persian.
•    Mughal architecture was best represented by Shah Jahan, who built many outstanding monuments, including Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid and Red Fort, inside which were built Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas.
•    Babur, after capturing Kabul in 1504, defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526, thus laying foundation of Mughal Empire in India. After fighting both Rajputs and Afghans, he died in 1530.
•    His grandson, Akbar, in his Early Rule, was mentored by Bairam Khan. After latter was removed from power, Akbar made many matrimonial alliances with Rajputs. He expanded Mughal Empire in all four directions. A liberal Muslim, Akbar worked for religious harmony among Indians, and started new religion – Din-i-Ilahi.
•    His great grandson, Aurangzeb, reversed Akbar’s Rajput and religious policies. Although he conquered Bijapur and Golconda in Deccan, his continuous wars with Marathas ruined Mughal Empire.

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  • Q1

    The Jagirdari crisis became acute during the reign of

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Aurangzeb.

    Explanation:

    During the time of Aurangzeb, the number of jagirdars increased but the number of jagirs remained limited. Thus, many of the jagirdars did not held any jagir land. This situation in history of the Mughals is known as ‘jagirdari crisis’.

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  • Q2

    The Maratha Chieftain who escaped from Agra and declared himself as an independent king was

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Shivaji.

    Explanation:

    Campaigns against the Maratha chieftain Shivaji were initially successful. But Aurangzeb insulted Shivaji who escaped from Agra,declared himself an independent king and resumed his campaigns against the Mughals.

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  • Q3

    Bijapur was annexed in:

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    1686 CE

    Explanation:

    The annexation of Bijapur and Golconda proved harmful to the Mughal Empire. The wars of annexation were too vast and unwieldy. Annexation also brought the Mughals into direct contact with the Marathas.

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  • Q4

    Prince Akbar rebelled against

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Aurangzeb.

    Explanation:

    Prince Akbar was the eldest son of Aurangzeb. Prince Akbar rebelled against Aurangzeb and received support from the Marathas and Deccan Sultanate. He finally fled to Safavid Iran.

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  • Q5

    The Guerilla warfare was started by the marathas in the deccan during the reign of...

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Aurangzeb.

    Explanation:

    From 1698 Aurangzeb personally managed campaigns in the Deccan against the Marathas who started guerrilla warfare.

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