The Sangam Age
• Sources on Sangam Age include both Sangam literature and archaeological sources, which include Megaliths, hero stones and inscriptions.
• Sangam literature consists of several literary sources. Eighteen minor works (Padhinenkilkanakku) has poems on have moral themes for mundane lives, which includes Thirukkural, which is divided into three major themes – Aram, Porul and Inbam.
• Both Ettuthogai (Eight Anthologies), which consist of eight major works in poems; and Pathuppattu (Ten Idylls or Ten long poems), consisting of ten works; are divided into Aham (love) and Puram (valour).
• Tolkappiyam is the oldest surviving Tamil literature. It is supposed to have been written by Tolkappiyar, one of the 12 disciples of saint Agasthya. The work consists of three books: Ezhuththathigaaram (Formation of words), Sollathigaaram (Syntax) and Porulathigaram (Thoughts).
• During last phase of Iron Age, or Megalithic Age, Sangam community was forming permanent agricultural settlements and chiefdoms. Their megalithic burials are scattered all over South India.
• According to Tolkappiyam, society was based on five-fold classification of land. Vedic varnas, brought by immigrant Brahmans, were of a later period.
• Although women in Sangam Age enjoyed certain liberties, they remained subordinate to men. They had no property rights, and remained widows or performed sati. Marriage was viewed as a sacrament.
• Upper classes dressed in fine muslin and silk, while lower class men wore just two pieces of cloth. Both men and women wore ornaments.
• People lived in houses made of either mud or bricks. Poor lived in thatched houses, while rich lived in double-storeyed house, with gopurams for entrance. People also amused themselves with dancing, sports and music.
• Sangam people ate plain food, along with various sweets. Brahmanism, Jainism and Buddhism coexisted.
• Economy depended on agriculture and trade. Many crops, including paddy and sugarcane, were cultivated. Cattle was important. Trade, conducted via barter, facilitated contact with Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Rome was highly profitable.
• Sangam Age witnessed large-scale industrial activities. There were various kinds of craftsmen. Construction activities, especially by craftsmen, reached their zenith. Many painted articles were greatly demanded. Woven fabrics was highly popular among foreigners, including Romans, who like Indian silk.
To Access the full content, Please Purchase
During the Sangam, the sandy region which suffered by drought was called -Marks:1
During the Sangam, the sandy region which suffered by drought was called Palai.
During the Sangam, the coastal region was called -Marks:1
During the Sangam, the coastal region was called Neithal.
During the Sangam Age, the wet and agricultural region was called -Marks:1
During the Sangam Age, the wet and agricultural region was called Marutham.
During the Sangam, the forested region was called -Marks:1
During the Sangam, the forested region was called Mullai.
During the Sangam, the mountainous region was called -Marks:1
During the Sangam, the mountainous region was called Kurinchi.