• An ecosystem is the foundation of biosphere. Ecosystem includes all biotic and abiotic components.
• The feeding relationship in an ecosystem is known as Food Chain.
• Producers are the biotic components which make their own food with the help of photosynthesis. Green plants, algae are some of the examples of producers.
• Consumers are the biotic components which can’t make their own food.They depend on producers for their food.
• Primary consumers, these are the organisms which consume plants and their produce as their feed to get energy. Few examples are grasshoppers and rabbits.
• Secondary consumers are the organisms which consumes primary consumers as their food.
• Tertiary consumers are the organisms which consumes secondary consumers as their food.
• Decomposers are some microorganisms which decompose the dead organisms. Decomposers obtain their nutrients from dead or decaying plants and animals.
• Each step in a food chain is known as trophic levels. The organism at each trophic level depends on the organism at the immediate lower trophic level and is itself eaten by the next higher member of the chain.
• Transfer of energy takes place among different trophic levels of a food chain. This transfer of energy is known as energy flow in an ecosystem. Only 10% of energy transfer takes place from one level to another.
• Energy transfer follows the first and second law of thermodynamics.
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Give examples of primary consumers.Marks:1
Grasshoppers and rabbits are few examples of primary consumers.
In a food chain, if the producers have 10,000 units of energy then what amount of energy will be available to the secondary consumer?Marks:1
Arrange the following and create a food chain.
Mouse, Owl, Eagle, Plant, Insect
Plant → Insect → Mouse → Owl → Eagle
Name the components of an ecosystem.Marks:1
- Biotic components
- Abiotic components
Give an example of a food chain in grassland ecosystem.Marks:1
Grass → Grass hopper → Frog → Snake → Eagle