Economics is the study of the creation, consumption, and transfer of wealth. It explores how people, corporations, governments, and nations allocate their resources, especially those which are scarce.
The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 talks about the human population as the greatest asset any country can have, owing to their superiority in intelligence, skills and physical capability compared to any other living being. Humans make tools, machinery, and technology to extract natural resources and produce goods and services. However, with sensitive and delicate handling, the country can realise the full potential of its human resources. Rather than a burden, if the nation recognises its duty and invests in its people by providing health, education, and vocational training, it paves the way for the creation of human capital formation. Then people, as resources added to the product, might think of the nation or the Gross National Product.
NCERT Solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to all the textbook questions. Through those, the students can understand, remember and retain answers to NCERT questions and thus, perform well in exams
Going through the NCERT Solutions makes it easier for students to understand it. For example, Extramarks presents NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 - People as Resources. Such content helps students understand the concepts as the Extramarks content has been made systematically, using basic language. NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 - People as Resources are prepared by Economics experts having years of experience. There are practical examples, short stories, government data and statistical analysis to bring further clarity. The syllabus follows NCERT guidelines and trains students sufficiently for their CBSE examinations.
Apart from Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 Solutions by Extramarks, students can access various other comprehensive study materials on the Extramarks website. For example, study material such as NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, and CBSE previous year question papers, all curated by experts after a lot of research, is available for all Classes.
Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2
The tabular representation below covers the topics under NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2
|Activities favouring the economy|
|Participation by Men and Women in economic activities|
|Determinants of quality population|
|Unemployment in rural areas|
|Unemployment in urban areas|
|Measures to mitigate unemployment|
In India, amongst all the available resources, people account for the maximum, both in numbers and availability. The rest of the resources like land, water, atmosphere, flora, and fauna are shared. A high population reduces this share. But if the same population is made capable enough to maximise the output of the available resources and produce more, then the population can be of great advantage. The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 treats this concept in detail. Through this Chapter, we learn how activating agents like health, education and training, uplift the people to perform better for themselves and their community. On the other hand, the absence of welfare can lead to unemployment and disillusionment, which only weakens the country's economy.
The skilled and productive humans, who can contribute to Gross National Product, are referred to as 'People as Resources'. This is because only human beings can extract benefits from land and other physical resources and not the other way around. Sometimes human resources alone are a powerhouse of resources without land, tools, plants, or other materials. As a case in point, human resources independently have created a niche for India in its IT industry.
Activities favouring the economy
The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 categorises occupation in India into three parts - primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary activities like farming, forestry, fishing, animal husbandry, poultry farming, mining etc., and secondary activities like manufacturing, etc., do not add to the national income. Whereas tertiary activities like e-commerce, banking, tourism, transport, health, services etc., add value to the national exchequer and are called economic activities. Tertiary activities may be market or non-market activities. Market activity is for profit-making and involves remuneration, viz. government services, production of goods and services. The non-market activity involves production mainly for self-consumption.
Participation by Men and Women in economic activities
To a large extent, India still follows the age-old custom and tradition of division of labour, where a man works outside the house and earns money to meet his family's needs. Women take care of the young and old apart from household chores. These activities are not part of the National Income. Hence, women do not get paid for them. The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 illustrates the disparity in men's and women's education and skill set. Women are less educated, as well as less skilled as compared to men, and get paid less for the same work. Moreover, women sometimes work in places without social security, legal protection, health facilities etc., where the pay is very irregular. However, if women are given higher education and trained in skill sets, they perform on par with men and are paid accordingly.
Determinants of quality population
We have already seen how the population can be turned into an asset if nurtured with good health, education, and sufficient training. Just as investment in land and capital yields returns, investment in individuals increases the country's asset value. e.g., Japan has precisely done this.
Health is foremost in improving the quality of a population. Any organisation demands healthy and strong employees for its growth. Good health breeds a healthy mind and helps individuals realise their full potential. India has created many programs for free and accessible health care, nutritional food distribution and family welfare, especially for the economically backward section of the population.
Education is the tool that equips an individual with intelligent thinking, decision-making ability, empathy, better-earning capability, and overall contribution to society and the country. Educated individuals understand the importance of nutrition, health, and hygiene and imbibe similar qualities in their progeny. Though education is the right of every citizen, the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 brings out its unequal treatment towards males and females, urban and rural and even region wise. Though the number of schools has steadily increased, high dropouts and poor-quality schooling have not improved literacy conditions. The ambitious 'Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan' is a partnership between centre, state, and local governing bodies and communities and aims at educating all children aged 6-14 years in a time-bound fashion. Midday meals, bridge courses and camps promoting the back-to-school motto have been instrumental in improving children's attendance, nutrition, and retentivity.
Apart from a healthy body and primary education, an individual also needs to have a skill set to perform specific duties in any organisation. The salaries are commensurate to an individual's capability, skill, and experience. The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 suggests techniques for quality training such as state-wise curriculum, distant education to access vocational subjects, networking for better use of information technology, the convergence of IT educational establishments, and formal and informal training. This way, students stand a better chance for a job of choice and higher salary.
The working force in India falls between 15 to 59 years, and within this bracket, if the individual is unable to secure a job at the going wages, they are termed unemployed. The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 brings out the different variants of unemployment.
In agricultural India, rainfall and other seasonal phenomena play a significant role in farm yield performance. In case of inconsistencies in these phenomena, there might be periods when farm labour involved in sowing, harvesting, threshing, and weeding are without jobs. Hence, they suffer from seasonal unemployment. The other common scenario given in the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 is disguised unemployment, where additional labour is involved unnecessarily. Since the product is the same, the extra hands-only reduces the burden on the workers and ends up getting a lower share of the wages. These two types of unemployment are prevalent in rural India.
Urban areas have their problems. The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 showcases how highly educated persons outnumber the available openings. Ironically, there are technically qualified youths who do not have enough jobs, and at the same time, there are openings lying vacant for want of skilled labour. The colossal wastage of the workforce is detrimental to the economy, depressing society and a burden to the nation. In addition, the health, education and welfare activities of the unemployed family get affected. The unemployment rate in India is low, but the income and productivity are not commensurate with their potential, experience and skill set. Since the economically backward section cannot afford to be idle, they work for sustenance at a bare minimum salary and do not have a job of choice. As a result, they suffer from forced unemployment.
Through the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2, we see a shift from primary to secondary and tertiary occupations. The labour-intensive factories and manufacturing units have created more jobs. Awareness through education brings reforms to villages, where jobs in health, teaching and enterprise sectors have crept up. The tertiary industry provides novel services like biotechnology, paramedical, astronomy, information technology, entrepreneurship etc.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 Exercises & Solutions
The syllabus of the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 covers all the crucial topics and sufficient information for children to score well in the CBSE examinations. The Chapter also trains students toward practical thinking rather than memorising the theory. This method of teaching has higher retention and application for future endeavours.
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Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2
NCERT Solutions provide detailed and authentic answers to all the textbook questions. Through those, the students can understand, remember and retain answers to NCERT questions and thus, perform well in exams
- This Chapter focuses on real-life situations and issues faced in rural/ urban India to reveal the different concepts related to human resources and their effective utilisation.
- It emphasises the treatment of the human population as the most critical resource. If offered to every citizen at the right age, some basic needs of education, health, and training will go a long way in nurturing their true potential.
- The other aspects covered in the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 are the economically viable activities, pay parity amongst different sects of population and unemployment as an inherent problem in urban and rural India.
- Experts and professionals at Extramarks have kept the language accessible in the NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 2, at the same time effectively explaining all concepts with in-depth analysis and sensitivity, in line with NCERT principles.
Q.1 What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?
‘People as Resource’ is a way of indicating country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. It refers to the productive aspects of the population that contribute to the Gross Domestic Product.
Q.2 How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Human resource is superior from other resources like land and capital because only human can make use of other resources to produce an output. They processes and develops them. Human equipped with education and better health care facilities convert or make things which have usability. The other resources cannot become useful on their own.
Q.3 What is the role of education in human capital formation?
When the existing human resource is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, it is known as human capital formation. So for the formation of human capital it is imperative to spend on education.
A child, with investment made on his/her education and training, can yield high return in future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to the society. In the same pursuits country can turn human resources like students into human capital like engineers and doctors or teachers.
Education opens the doors for a good job and salary. Education enhances the quality and quantity of labour’s productivity which can contributes towards the growth of society also. Since educated persons have realised the importance of education, they are found to invest more heavily on the education of their children.
The advantages of an educated population spread to whole society.
Q.4 What is the role of health in human capital formation?
A good health is imperative for a good life. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential or capabilities and the ability to fight illness. A child, with investment made on her health can yield high return in the future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to society. He works efficiently and helps other in realising their potential like teacher helps students in realising their potential. By working efficiently, teachers make good engineers who further contribute in the human capital formation. An educated and unhealthy population cannot realise its potential. An unhealthy person becomes liability because he/she is dependent on working age group for their survival. Thus, health is indispensable for human capital formation along with education.
Q.5 What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
A good health is imperative for a good life. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential or capabilities and the ability to fight illness. A healthy person efficiently utilises his time and effort. His approach in his working life is more focused and concentrated. As a result his productivity increases in terms of both quality and quantity.
Q.6 What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
On the basis of type of occupation, economic activities are divided into three sectors, i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary. The activities included in different sectors are as follows:
• Primary sector includes activities like agriculture, forestry, fishing, poultry farming, mining etc.
• Secondary sector includes construction, quarrying and manufacturing along with all types of industries.
• Tertiary sector includes trade, transport, communication, banking, education, tourism etc.
Q.7 What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
|Economic activities||Non-economic activities|
|The activities which add value to the national income are called economic activities.||Activities which are performed to produce for self consumption are referred to as non-economic activities.|
|These activities results in production of goods and services and are performed to earn profit.||These activities are not performed for monetary gains.|
|For example: When a woman is working as a chef in a hotel, she gets payment for it.||For example: When she cooks food for her family at her home, she is not paid for that.|
Q.8 Why are women employed in low paid work?
The following reasons explained why women are employed in low paid jobs:
1. Historically women in India are less educated than men. They get less education and low skills and hence employed in less paid jobs.
2. Women normally work in unorganised sectors because of lack of knowledge and information which offer less income.
3. Women are generally unaware of their legal rights and are get exploited easily by the employers in terms of wages.
Q.9 How will you explain the term unemployment?
Unemployment is situation in which people are willing to work at the prevailing wage rate but do not find jobs. In India, we can see unemployment in both rural and urban areas.
Q.10 What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
|Seasonal unemployment||Disguised unemployment|
|It means when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year.||It means when people appear to be employed but they are not adding to the productivity.|
|For example, farmers in certain seasons like at the time of sowing, harvesting, weeding, threshing they are employed and in remaining months they remain unemployed.||For example, suppose a work requires the services of five people but engages eight people. Here, three people are extra. If three people are removed from the work, the total produce will remain unaffected. The three extra people are called as disguised unemployment.|
Q.11 Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?
In urban areas educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon. Many youths with proper schooling, graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find jobs.
The reasons for educated unemployment are as follows:
1. Employment opportunities in India have not increased at the same rate as population is increasing.
2. Educated people want only a certain kind of jobs. They prefer to stay without job rather than accepting a low standard job or the job which does not suit their academic courses.
3. Educated unemployed is not ready to work in rural areas and thereby remain unemployed in urban areas.
Thus, we see that India has many educated unemployed.
Q.12 In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?
In India the tertiary sector or the service sector may have the maximum potential for new employment. Various new services are now appearing in the information technology sector, bio-technology sector etc. Communication services are spreading to the rural area and there is lot of scope for employment. People are becoming more health conscious. They are employed as dieticians, physio-therapists, trainers, sport experts etc.
In recent years maximum employment opportunities have increased in the BPO or call centers. This has been a boon for moderately educated young people.
India is soon going to become a big destination for the world because of its relatively reasonable and accurate surgical procedures. There is a lot of scope in the tourist and hospitality sector in India.
Q.13 Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?
The problem of educated unemployment can be solved by following steps:
- More technical education should be given to student so that they will get job immediately after completion of course. Courses should be career oriented.
- Education should be vocational. Vocational education should be provided along with curriculum of graduation that enhances the productivity of students for e.g. beautician course can be taught to interested students.
- Education should encourage people to become self reliant and enterprising. It should open new avenues for them. Education needs to be planned properly and executed with great sensitivity.
Q.14 Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?
Noida and Gurgoan, near Delhi are regions which initially had not job opportunities but later came up with many. Now people are moving to these places in search of better job opportunity.
Q.15 Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?
Amongst land, labour, physical capital and human capital, I consider human capital is the best capital. Human capital is superior from other resources because it can make use of other resources to produce an output. Human capital processes and develops other capital. Human equipped with education and better health care facilities convert resources or make things which have usability. The other capital resources cannot become useful on their own.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 emphasises the power of people and their role in a country’s economic development. A nation must provide primary and secondary education, health service, family welfare and sufficient training to everyone to turn them into an asset. The country should also nip unemployment from the bud and create new venues and alternate job opportunities for the youth.
This team at Extramarks has indulged in many practical examples, hypothetical situations, short stories, picture graphs and statistical information to reach out to every student on the importance of human resources. After studying the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2, the students will be able to grasp the basic concepts related to human resources and perform well in their CBSE examinations.
The students should refer to Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 questions and answers section and the following possible questions for the CBSE examination.
- What are the economic activities in India?
- What is the guiding principle to convert any population from liability to an asset?
- What is the concept behind forced unemployment, and how does it affect the youth of India?
- Explain how unemployment is treated differently in rural and urban India.