NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology

Biology is the most significant subject for students who want to pursue a career in medicine. NEET is the single entrance exam for medical colleges across India. This examination’s syllabus comprises both Class 11 Biology and Class 12 Biology NCERT books. In several Indian schools, NCERT Books for Class 11 Biology have been recommended. All concepts and topics are described in great detail and clarity in these books. As a result, students should refer to NCERT textbooks to prepare better for the exam.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology

CBSE Class 11 Biology covers a wide range of key topics such as the living world, biological taxonomy, structural organisation in plants and animals, the cell, cell division, biomolecules, plant physiology, human physiology, and so on. A thorough understanding of the fundamentals of CBSE Class 11 Biology Notes is vital. These chapters’ themes are essential in higher classes to readily understand difficult topics. 

Those aiming to secure good marks should look at remembering and understanding these principles. Particularly in class 11, because this will serve as the foundation for all future learning. Hence, students should extensively cover each topic mentioned in the NCERT Textbooks and be confident in answering any question from it. In addition, the Biology Books for Class 11 feature a number of questions and activities at the end of each chapter. These NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology come to the rescue if they get stuck in the middle.

NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter wise Solutions

The Class 11 Biology Solutions are organised chapter-by-chapter and question-by-question to make it simple for students to access and utilise. The NCERT textbook for Class 11 Biology contains 22 chapters. Students can download the chapter-wise solutions by clicking on the title of the chapter from the list given below. It is advisable to first attempt these questions on your own and then compare their answers to these solutions to see whether they are correct or not. 

Biology NCERT Solutions for Class 11 

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology are useful not only for Class 11 exams, but also for entrance tests such as NEET, JEE, medical entrance exams, and other competitive exams. These solutions were developed to assist students in grasping the most knowledge with the least amount of mental effort. Some questions given in the NCERT Book are tricky and difficult to understand. The most common problems faced by students are difficult terms and procedures. For this, students may download the chapter-wise solutions Class 11 Biology Solutions which also contain question-wise answers. These answers are explained in great detail and in simple language. You can read these solutions and prepare your own notes for each unique question.

NCERT Solution for Class 11 Biology

Extramarks has created these solutions for the questions found at the end of each chapter in the Class 11 Biology NCERT book. These solutions were created by subject matter experts who have decades of experience in the education system to ensure that you can understand the solutions in a step-by-step manner. When using them for homework, you can present your answers in a way that helps you get good grades in your classes.

We have ensured that none of these options will cost you anything. You don’t even have to read these NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology online because we’ve included Class 11 download links that you can just click to download and read at your leisure.

Chapter Details & Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology

Chapter 1: The Living World 

This chapter introduces students to a wide range of natural flora and fauna. It begins by asking, “What is living?” before moving on to discuss taxonomic categories and tools. Students become acquainted with the critical subject of genus and species categorisation. They are brought into the fascinating realm of living beings, where they uncover previously discovered knowledge about their environment and habits. They are also educated about biodiversity and the importance of preserving it.

Topics included in Chapter 1: The Living World

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; concept of species and taxonomic hierarchy; binomial nomenclature.

Chapter 2: Biological Classification

The chapter contains characteristics of the Whittaker 5 system classification   Kingdoms Monera, Protista, and Fungi. The Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia, also known as the plant and animal kingdoms, will be discussed further in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. The kingdoms Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, Viruses, Viroids, and Lichens will also be covered.

Topics included in Chapter 2: Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom

From this chapter , the students delve into the specifics of the world as it has been classified thus far. They learn about the plant kingdom’s additional classifications in order to make it easier to study. They are exposed to new terms such as Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, and others throughout this chapter. They also learn about the plant’s life cycle and the generational cycle. They have a thorough understanding of the habitat, features, and physiology of plants, which are complex organisms.

Topics included in Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Gymnosperms. (salient and distinguishing features and a few examples of each category).

Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom

Kingdom Animalia is the most important kingdom in this chapter. Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata are the phyla into which animals are classified. Animal survival strategies, physiology, environment, and anatomy are also extensively discussed . The first unit, Diversity in Living Organisms, comes to a close with this chapter. It carries a 14 percent weightage in the NEET test and 7 marks in the final exam.

Topics included in Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom

Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (salient features and distinguishing features of a few examples of each category). (No live animals or specimens should be displayed.)

Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

In this chapter, students will learn about plant morphology. It introduces them to the terms and definitions that they must know in order to comply with the requirements. They learn about the roots, its areas, alterations, and so on. They also learn about flowers and stalks.

Topics included in Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology of inflorescence and flower, Description of 01 family: Solanaceae or Liliaceae (to be dealt along with the relevant experiments of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Students will learn about the internal structure and functional organisation of plants in this chapter. Plant tissue is divided into two types: meristematic and persistent. The basic activities of plant tissue include food assimilation and storage, water and mineral movement, and so on. They’ll also learn about plant tissue composition and types.

Topics included in Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

The Tissues, The Tissue System, Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants, Secondary Growth

Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals

It covers multicellular and acellular animal species, as well as structured tissue and its functions. Students have already studied a wide range of species, both unicellular and multicellular.

Earthworms, Cockroaches, and Frogs’ morphology and anatomy are studied in depth by the learner. Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals, has a 5% weighting in NEET and 12 marks in the final exams. This also marks the end of Unit 2.

Topics included in Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Animal tissues.

Chapter 8: Cell-the Unit of Life

Cell theory underpins all of biology. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are both introduced to them. Students study membrane-bound and non-membrane-bound organelles in cells. With the help of informative graphics, they learn about their structure and function as well. Students also learn about other biologists’ contributions to this discipline over time.

Topics included in Chapter 8: Cell the Unit of Life

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.

Chapter 9: Biomolecules

The student will learn about biomolecules, their functions, and structures, as well as why they are significant, in this chapter. Metabolites, bio-macromolecules such as proteins, and enzymes will be covered. They’ll learn how enzymes play a crucial role in biochemical reactions.

Topics included in Chapter 9: Biomolecules

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

The principles of the cell cycle and cell division are introduced in this chapter. Students understand the differences and importance of meiosis and mitosis. Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis are all phases of the cell cycle that they study . Unit 3: Cell Structure and Functions is completed in this chapter. It carries a 9% weightage in NEET and 15 marks in the final exam.

Topics included in Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

Chapter 11: Transport in Plants

A vascular system in higher plants, including xylem and phloem, is responsible for translocation. Phloem is in charge of transporting food sugar from the source to the sink. This chapter teaches the learner about many parts of the transportation system in plants involving Xylem and Phloem such as imbibing, plasmolysis, osmosis, active transport, and transpiration. Means of Transportation, Plant-Water Relations, Long-Distance Water Transport, Transpiration, Mineral Nutrient Uptake and Transport, and other topics are covered in this chapter. The phloem translocation is explained by the pressure-flow theory.

Topics included in Chapter 11: Transport in Plants

Means of Transport, Plant-Water Relations, Long Distance Transport of Water, Transpiration, Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients, Phloem, Transport: Flow from Source to Sink. Plants obtain a variety of inorganic elements (ions) and salts from their surroundings, especially from water and soil.

Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition

Students will learn how to identify the various minerals required for plant growth and function in this chapter. They study what qualifies a mineral as essential, as well as its mode of transport and process of absorption.

It also talks about the deficiency symptoms associated with a lack of said minerals, for a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. They are also given a basic overview of nitrogen fixation and its importance.

Topics included in Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition

Route of transport and absorption, symptoms of mineral deficiency, nitrogen fixation and its importance.

Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

The photosynthetic mechanism is explained in detail in this chapter. Students learn about the numerous processes, such as the light reaction, the electron transport chain, and the C4 cycle. They also read about photo-phosphorylation, both cyclic and non-cyclic. NADPH and ATP are highlighted in this chapter.

Topics included in Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants

This chapter regulates cell breath, or the component of the breakdown of food materials within the cell to give energy, as well as the capture of this energy for the synthesis of ATP. This chapter further elaborates on subjects, such as “Do Plants Breathe?” The topic covers the principles of Glycolysis, Aerobic Respiration, The Respiratory Balance Sheet, Fermentation, Amphibolic Pathway, and Respiratory Quotient.

Topics included in Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter 15: Plant Growth and Development

Students will learn about the different internal and external elements that influence plant growth and development. They study plant growth stages, growth regulators, differentiation, dedifferentiation, redifferentiation, vernalisation, seed dormancy, and other topics. Plant hormones’ role in plant growth and development is also studied. Unit 4, Plant Physiology, is completed in this chapter. It is worth 6% of NEET points and 18 points in the final test.

Topics included in Chapter 15: Plant Growth and Development

Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.

Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption

In this chapter, students begin to investigate human physiology and get an understanding of how their own bodies work. This chapter is largely concerned with digestion and absorption of digested food. Digestive system problems are briefly discussed as well. The chapter also discusses the many food components that are needed in our daily diet and the problems that arise when they are deficient.

Topics included in Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption

Human physiology, food digestion, absorption, digestive system disorders, nutritional components and deficits in diet.

Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Through this chapter, students will understand the idea of breathing and its difference from respiration. The respiratory system and the organs that comprise it are the focus of this study. The exchange and movement of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are thoroughly covered. Students are also given a brief overview of respiratory issues and the situations that lead to them.

Topics included in Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Humans have a sophisticated circulatory system. This subject is covered in this chapter. The learners study the circulatory routes in people. They learn about blood and its components, lymph (tissue fluid), blood types, and so on. Heart diseases as well as electrocardiographs are also covered.

Topics included in Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination

This chapter is about the human excretory system. Students learn about the excretory system’s various components, including the auxiliary organs. They research the process of urine production and kidney function , as well as a variety of renal illnesses.

Topics included in Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination

Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement

This chapter introduces students to several types of locomotion and movement in both unicellular and multicellular creatures. The skeletal and muscular systems are thoroughly explored. This chapter investigates the numerous voluntary and involuntary muscular motions, muscle anatomy and function, and muscle illnesses such as gout, osteoporosis, and arthritis.

Topics included in Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement

Skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction.

Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination

This chapter talks about the human central and peripheral nerve systems. Students  will study  impulse creation and transmission, as well as synapses and reflex action. They discover that the neuron is the basic building block of the neurological system. With the help of clear pictures, they can also understand the mechanics of seeing and hearing.

Topics included in Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse.

Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

This chapter is about the endocrine and exocrine glands that exist in organisms. The human endocrine system, the hormones secreted by it, the functions of said hormones, and the disorders caused by excess or deficiency of the same are given special attention. Students study the mechanism of hormone action as well as the feedback mechanism that governs hormone production. Unit 5, Human Physiology, is completed with this chapter. It is worth 20% of your NEET score and 18 points in the final test.

Topics included in Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.

Tips for Acing the NCERT Biology Exam in Class 11

Solutions for Class 11 Biology Solutions are a vital requirement for acing the NCERT Biology Exam in Class 11. So, every student should have CBSE NCERT solutions for class 11 biology on hand for better CBSE exam preparation. The main thing is that your knowledge of the topics in the biology chapters will improve, and you will be able to perform better in tests. Here are some tips for students to follow:-

  • Make a study plan and follow it consistently and diligently.

When studying for the exam, it is critical to keep to a well-planned timeframe and study strategy. To ensure a seamless and sound preparation, students must develop a study strategy after properly analysing the new exam pattern, curriculum, and marking system. They should devote equal time to each of the exam’s main content, with ample study breaks in between. Extra time should be set aside for important and challenging topics, as well as problem-solving activities, practise papers, and review sessions.

  • Get started on your preparations as soon as possible.

Students should begin studying for each topic as soon as possible. Postponing your study schedule will only add pressure and an incomplete study. If you start early enough, you can focus on every detail  and have a more holistic coverage of the curriculum. You can use the NCERT solutions for Class 11 to prepare your own notes based on your understanding. As a consequence, you’ll be able to grasp concepts more quickly and  easily. 

  • Understand the Biology paper’s structure and curriculum in depth.

The CBSE publishes and updates the Class 11 Biology exam syllabus and exam pattern on a regular basis. The questions for the Class 11 Biology examination are all selected from the same collection of topics. Aside from the curriculum, the design of the paper is crucial because it may aid you in developing your own strategy for successfully completing the question paper. Therefore, students should spend their time assessing and solving previous years’ as well as sample question papers to learn more about the structure of the paper and prepare accordingly.

  • Examine a number of different question variations.

Students can practise on a variety of sample papers and CBSE Question Papers For Class 11 Biology. Solving these papers will help you become more familiar with a range of question types. It will also help you have a better understanding of the question structure and the best way to answer a question.

  • Important Terms and Diagrams Should Not Be Ignored

There are a few fundamental concepts in Biology that are essential for exams. In addition to studying and memorising crucial concepts, the topic contains several important illustrations, clearly explained in the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology. Practice the pictures and their labelling thoroughly in order to deliver the proper solution in the exam. It will help you recall and quickly review them.

  • Examine the Biology Syllabus at least a Few Times

Students must prioritise revision sessions in order to recall and retain material for a longer period of time. For the Biology final exam, re-read the themes of each Biology chapter and double-check the marks each chapter carries.

2022-23 Marking Scheme for CBSE Biology Class 11

The CBSE Class 12 syllabus is divided into two terms: Term 1 and Term 2. Subjective/open-ended short answer type/situation-based/case-based questions are included in the CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern Term 2. The majority of the questions in both Term 1 and Term 2 are objective in nature.

Term – I 

Units Term – I Marks
I Diversity of Living Organisms: Chapter – 1, 2, 3, and 4 15
II Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals: Chapter 5 and 7 08
III Cell: Structure and Function: Chapter – 8 and 9 12

Term – II 

Units Term – II Marks
IV Cell: Structure and Function: Chapter – 10  05
V Plant Physiology: Chapter – 13, 14, and 15 12
VI Human Physiology: Chapter – 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 18
Total Theory (Term – I and Term – II)  70
Practical Term – I  15
Practical Term – II  15
Total 100

NCERT Solution of Biology Class 11 – Free Download

Extramarks offers free downloads of the most recent solutions developed with the latest question papers and techniques. All of the chapters in the NCERT Biology textbook for Class XI are covered in these solutions. Here you’ll find all of the in-text and chapter-end practice questions, as well as detailed answers to each one. Extramarks’ qualified professors who have substantial expertise in their respective disciplines have developed all of the Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions on this page.

NCERT Solutions of Biology Class 11

In most cases, students just read an idea and attempt to memorise it. You may not even understand the subject, but you memorise it because it is an important portion of your exam. This is where these solutions come in – the prescribed responses are recreated into a language that is simple to understand and remember. A team of highly experienced professionals designed the Class 11 Biology NCERT solutions, especially to help students get the marks they deserve. This leads to content that is tailored specifically to pupils, making it simple to get a thorough understanding of the subject.

Marks Weightage of Class 11 Biology NCERT

The final examination has a total of 70 marks. Unit 1 carries 7 points, Unit 2 carries 11 points, Unit 3 carries 15 points, Unit 4 carries 17 points, and Unit 5 carries 20 points. Since the fifth unit is worth the highest points, it is advisable for students to begin their preparations from this unit. Following unit 5, they can proceed to work on Unit 4. However, students should not neglect the other units and regularly revise them as well. 

Benefits of CBSE Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions

Downloading the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology  When students download the file containing Biology NCERT Class 11 solutions, they gain several benefits. Among these advantages are the following:

  • Students appearing for NEET should have a strong command of diagrams from the class 11th and 12th biology sections. The Class 11 Biology Solutions expose these diagrams with clarity and descriptions to help students understand complex diagrams 
  • As you are aware, the subject of class 11th is very essential; thus, a student should learn with great interest and develop the habit of asking questions in regular class; never keep doubts with you. NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology can be of assistance to you
  • Students would be  able to cover the class subject in less time than using printed notes or notes taken from another student; in fact, you could re-read and recall your whole chapter in a matter of minutes if you use your own handwritten notes using the NCERT Solutions as a guide
  • A major number of questions in JIPMER, AIIMS, and NEET are based on diagrams and the content of NCERT tables Therefore, bear this in mind
  • Use NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology to help you solve all of the NCERT textbook questions

How to utilise Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions for Board and Competitive exams?

Did you know that roughly 85% of the questions in NEET 2019 are taken directly from the NCERT textbook? About 45 % of these question comes from the NCERT class 11 text book, while the remaining 65 % comes from the NCERT class 12 text book. This information clarifies the significance of the NCERT class 11 Biology text book. You will be prepared for any problem with NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology. Students can follow the tips given below and utilise the solutions to the maximum not just for their boards, but for future competitive examinations.

Note making: When attending a lecture, make a note of the important points that the teacher makes. This procedure stimulates your intellect and allows you to recall knowledge more easily. Furthermore, this is a crucial tool to employ when revising for your exam. Because you prepared these notes, you will be able to absorb and recall the information more easily than if you had used a textbook.

Information Chunking: It is impossible to remember every detail as it is owing to the vast curriculum. This is where a technique called chunking helps. The entire content is conveniently broken into chunks or smaller pieces of information. Not only does this make it easier to remember the points, but it also reduces cognitive load which reduces mental fatigue. You can split it according to your understanding.

Drawing: Diagrams play an important role in the Class 11 Biology NCERT curriculum. However, you will not have much time during the exam to sketch neatly or clearly, which may prevent you from receiving the marks you need to pass the exam. As a result, practise the essential schematics beforehand with various components such as shading and texturing. This will set you apart from the rest of your classmates. This may take some effort to learn and master, but the payoff is well worth it.

How would the extramarks study material help in learning more effectively?

  • At Extramarks, we have a staff of highly qualified experts who are specialists in their disciplines. All answers are worked on by these professional lecturers
  • All solutions in the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology are totally accurate and stated in points. This guarantees that pupils may readily comprehend the content
  • These solutions are written in accordance with CBSE norms. This will assist the students to score well-deserving marks in their final examinations

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the best website to get NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology?

Extramarks offer answers to all of the questions in the NCERT Textbook. Students should consult these solutions to get a better understanding of the areas that require additional practice. The solutions are carefully crafted by the teachers, taking into account the understanding skills of Class 11 students. By referring to these solutions, students can strengthen their analytical and logical thinking skills, which are critical for success in Class 11 exams.

2. Can I get NCERT Class 11 Biology Solutions both in English and Hindi?

The NCERT Class 11 Biology Books for 2022-23 are available in Hindi and English. Students can download them according to their language preferences.

3. Do I have to pay to access NCERT solutions for Class 11th Biology?

Students need not pay any fee to access these solutions. You may get the NCERT biology Class 11th solutions for free by clicking on the download link for that particular chapter or subject.

4. Is the NCERT Class 11 Biology textbook just available in PDF format online?

No, students can use multiple formats specified on the NCERT website. The official website offers the NCERT Class 11 Biology books in the following formats:

  1. PDFs
  2. Flipbook
  3. ePub for I-XII Textbooks
  4. State/UT e-textbooks (ePub)

5. Which Biology book is the best for NEET?

NCERT is, without a doubt, the best Biology book for clearing your basics for NEET. NCERT at your Fingertips is very useful for practising Biology MCQs.

6. How many units is Class 11 Biology made up of?

In CBSE Class 11 Biology, there are five units, which are given below:

  1. Diversity in the Living World
  2. Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals
  3. Cell- Structure and Functions
  4. Plant Physiology
  5. Human Physiology