NEET Biology Syllabus

NEET BIOLOGY SYLLABUS 2022

NEET is conducted every year to select candidates for admission into various undergraduate medical courses in different colleges of the country. Biology, Physics, and Chemistry are the main subjects that are asked in the exam, with 50% of the weightage given to Biology alone. Therefore, understanding NEET Biology Syllabus and preparing in accordance with it is very important for the aspirants to succeed in this prestigious exam.

NEET 2022 Biology Syllabus- Download Free PDF

All the Biology NEET chapters in the syllabus are taken from NCERT. On this page, you will find the PDF of NEET Biology Syllabus 2022 for your reference. 

NEET Class 11 Biology Syllabus – Subject Wise Detail

Unit  Syllabus
Unit 1 – Diversity in Living World • What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy — Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).

• Salient features and classification of animals-non chordate up to phyla level and chordate up to class level ( salient features and examples).

UNIT 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed

 • Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

Unit 3 – Cell Structure and Function • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Unit 4 – Plant Physiology • Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant — water relations — imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long-distance transport of water— Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases

• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth Regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

Unit 5 – Human Physiology • Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders — PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of the circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

• Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagella, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia Gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout

• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders, e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease)

NEET Class 12 Biology Syllabus – Subject Wise Detail

Units  Syllabus
UNIT I: Reproduction • Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction — Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilisation; Post fertilisation events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies — IVF, ZIFT, GIFT 

UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution • Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare • Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications • Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment • Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

NEET Biology Syllabus Analysis

Thoroughly analysing the NEET Biology syllabus 2022  will enable the students to strategise their preparation based on their strengths and weaknesses in each topic. By understanding the weightage of each NEET Biology chapter,  students can devote their time more to the priority topics.

NEET 2021 Biology Question Paper Analysis

The following table gives the number of questions asked from each topic of the NEET Biology syllabus last year.

Chapter No. of Questions
The Living World 1
Biological Classification 1
Plant Kingdom 5
Animal Kingdom 4
Morphology of Flowering Plants 2
Anatomy of Flowering Plants 3
Structural Organisation in Animals 3
Cell: The Unit of Life 2
Biomolecules 3
Cell Cycle and Cell Division 7
Transport in Plants 1
Photosynthesis in Higher Plants 4
Respiration in Plants 1
Plant Growth and Development 3
Digestion and Absorption 2
Breathing and Exchange of Gases 3
Body Fluids and Circulation 3
Locomotion and Movement 4
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering plants 3
Human Reproduction 3
Reproductive Health 3
Principles of Inheritance and Variation 2
Molecular Basis of Inheritance 10
Evolution 1
Human Health and Disease 3
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 3
Microbes in Human Welfare 1
Biotechnology: Principles and Processes 6
Biotechnology and its Applications 5
Organisms and Populations 4
Ecosystem 3
Environmental Issues 1

NEET 2021 Biology Chapter Wise Weightage

Class XI
Unit Chapters Weightage (approximate)
I Diversity of Living Organisms 13%
II Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals 8%
III Cell: Structure and Function 7%
IV Plant Physiology 9%
V Human Physiology 17%
Class XII
Unit Chapters Weightage

(approximate)

VI Reproduction 10%
VII Genetics and Evolution 14%
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 10%
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 5%
X Ecology and Environment 8%

NEET 2022 Class Wise Important Chapters – Biology

A total of 90 questions are asked from NEET Biology syllabus in the exam. The following table explains the number of questions asked from each topic of Botany and Zoology from both class 11 and class 12.

Class 11 NEET Biology Important Chapters

NEET Botany Topics Number of Questions Marks allocated  
Class 11th – Botany Topics
Diversity in Living World 4 16
Living World 1 4
Plant Kingdom 1 4
Biological classification 2 8
Structural Organisation in Animals & Plants 4 16
Anatomy of Flowering Plant 3 12
Morphology in flowering plants 1 4
Cell Structure & Function 7 28
Cell Cycle and Division 2 8
Cell: The unit of life 5 20
Plant Physiology 8 32
Mineral Nutrition 1 4
Plant Growth and Development 2 8
Respiration in Plants 2 8
Transport in Plants 3 12
NEET Zoology Topics Number of Questions Marks Allocated
Class 11th – Zoology Chapters
Animal Kingdom 2 8
Structural Organisation in Animal 2 8
Biomolecules 4 16
Breathing and Exchange of Gases 1 4
Human Physiology 12 48
Chemical Coordination 2 8
Digestion and Absorption 2 8
Excretory products and their elimination 2 8
Locomotion and Movement 2 8
Body Fluids and Circulation 2 8
Nervous System 2 8

Class 12 NEET Biology Important Chapters

       
NEET Botany Topics Number of Questions Marks allocated  
Class 12th – Botany Topics
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 4 16
Genetics & Evolution 10 40
Principles of Inheritance and variation 7 28
Molecular Basis of Inheritance 3 12
Microbes in Human Welfare 1 4
Ecology & Environment 9 36
Biodiversity and Conservation 3 12
Ecosystem 1 4
Environmental Issues 4 16
Organisms and Population 1 4
NEET Botany Questions & Weightage from Class 12th 24 96
NEET Botany Questions & Weightage from Class 11th and 12th 47 188
Sexual Reproduction in flowering Plants 4 16
Genetics & Evolution 10 40
Principles of Inheritance and variation 7 28
Molecular basis of inheritance 3 12
NEET Zoology Topics Number of Questions Marks Allocated
Class 12th – Zoology Chapters
Reproduction 6 24
Human Reproduction 3 12
Reproductive Health 3 12
Evolution 3 12
Biology & Human Welfare 8 32
Human Health and Disease 4 16
Microbes in Human Welfare 3 12
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 1 1 4
Biotechnology 5 20
Biotechnology and its application 2 8
Biotechnology and its processes and principles 3 12

Tips: How to Prepare NEET 2022 Biology Syllabus

The questions that are asked in the exam from NEET Biology syllabus are either memory-based or those that require a deep understanding of scientific terms. If we analyse NEET past years’ papers, it becomes clear that the questions are easy to moderate on the difficulty scale. Therefore, with discipline and regular practice, the students can ace this exam easily. Here, you will find a few tips for preparing for the exam to help you crack NEET 2022 with ease:

  1. Students must analyse the NEET Biology syllabus and categorise it into high priority, medium priority, and low priority topics based on the distribution of marks for each topic. In this way, the students can devote more time to covering the topics that will fetch them higher marks in the exam.
  2. It is advised for the students to prepare notes for a quick revision. Handwritten notes help the students brush up on their memory and ensure that they go through each topic regularly. This will help them in keeping the concepts at their fingertips.
  3. Mock tests are a great way to prepare for the exam. They help in simulating the exam environment while preparing, which helps the students to tackle the anxiety that comes with the exam.
  4. Students must prepare a daily routine and stick to it. The routine must include time for relaxation and recreation. This will help the students manage stress and ensure good performance in the exam.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. How many hours should an aspiring NEET candidate study?

The number of hours that a student dedicates to NEET preparation depends upon their concentration level. If you can focus well and understand the topics in one go, then devoting 6-7 hours a day is sufficient.

2. Is NEET Biology easy?

The NEET Biology syllabus comprises topics from the NCERT textbook. Mostly, the questions that are asked in this section are memory-based. If we look at previous year’s NEET question papers, it is clear that the paper is easy to moderate on the difficulty scale.

3. How many chapters are there in the NEET 2022 Biology curriculum?

There are 10 units from Botany and 8 units from Zoology in the NEET Biology syllabus. These units are from both class 11 and class 12 Biology subject.

4. Is there any change in NEET pattern 2022?

There is no change in the NEET exam pattern in 2022, and it is similar to past years.