# ICSE Revision Notes

Considering the syllabus and examination pattern that ICSE follows for the academic year, it becomes important to understand the key concepts. This is why preparing notes come in handy. Students can get a better understanding if they practice questions together with the keynotes, allowing them to recognize the concepts in less time if they make notes while understanding the chapters.

Extramarks provides a series of ICSE notes for classes 9th and 10th that students can easily access through the official website. With the help of Extramarks ICSE revision notes, students can practice with more efficiency and effectiveness. Practicing ICSE important questions and ICSE questions papers with the help of revision notes can help the students to understand the chapters more effectively.

## ICSE Revision Notes & Short Key Notes

With the help of short keynotes, students can prepare better for the examinations. Even when time is limited, ICSE revision notes can help students review all previously prepared chapters and ideas. Revision notes for ICSE may be quite beneficial to students who wish to achieve high scores in their exams. Extramarks developed ICSE Revision Notes for Science and Mathematics from Classes 9 and 10 to guide them in the right direction. These review notes for each chapter will provide students with an expert studying pattern that will allow them to perform significantly better.

### Revision Notes for ICSE Class 9 & 10 Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

Students appearing for Class 9th and 10th examinations can visit the Extramarks website and refer to the subject-wise revision notes. They can refer to the notes as per subjects and prepare for the exam.

#### ICSE Class 10 Revision Notes

Students in Class 10 can refer to the subject-wise revision notes below:

Mathematics

• To calculate profit percentage, opt for the formula: (profit/ cost price)* 100
• To calculate the loss percentage, opt for the formula: (loss/ cost price)* 100
• The ratio of selling price and cost price (SP/CP) = 1 + Profit% or 1- loss%.
• GST amount is calculated in the following manner:
• (Product of Rate of GST and selling price)/ 100
• Rate of GST = GST divided by selling price and then further multiplied by 100
• The marked price is the price at which the merchant wants to sell his items.
• The amount subtracted from the advertised price (M.P.) of an object to increase sales or dispose of outdated or broken products is referred to as a discount.
• Net price is the difference in original product cost and GST applied to the cost.
• A bank is a type of financial institution that accepts deposits and lends money.
• The bank’s basic functions are to accept money from depositors, lend money on demand, and provide other important services to society.
• Savings bank accounts, current accounts, fixed deposit accounts, and recurring deposit accounts are the four categories of bank accounts.
• A depositor opens a Recurring Deposit Account and picks a certain amount to deposit every month for a predetermined period that he or she specifies when starting the account. Deposit terms might range from three months to ten years. When this term expires, the depositor receives a lump sum payment.
• Maturity value is the aggregate sum of the amount deposited and the interest compounded quarterly at a fixed rate.
• Certain corporate groups must raise funds from the general public.
• A corporation may require funds to begin operations or to launch a new project. The amount of money necessary is referred to as capital. The needed capital is divided into tiny equal portions, each of which is referred to as a share.
• When a person buys stock in a corporation, he or she becomes a shareholder.
• Dividends are a portion of a company’s annual earnings delivered to its shareholders.
• A company’s estimated worth is broken into little portions ranging from Rs 1 to Rs 100.
• Each gained part is referred to as a share.
• In case, the share is valued at par then market value = nominal value
• An inequation is a mathematical statement in which the quantity on one side is not equal to the amount on the other side.
• Solving a Linear Inequality: There are certain rules in algebra. These are the following:
• When a positive term is shifted from one side of inequality to the other, its sign changes to negative.
• When a negative term is shifted from one side of inequality to the other, its sign changes to positive.
• When each term of inequality is multiplied or divided by the same positive number (p), the inequality’s sign does not change.
• When each term of inequality is multiplied or divided by the same negative number (p), the inequality’s sign is reversed.
• The sign of inequality is reversed if the sign of each word on both sides of the inequality is altered.
• If both sides of an inequality are either positive or negative, the sign of the inequality reverses when their reciprocals are taken.
• A quadratic equation is a one-variable equation with the maximum degree of the variable.
• A quadratic equation can only have two zeros.
• A quadratic equation is said to be pure if it contains just the square of the unknown.
• The quadratic equations can be solved via two methods – the factorisation method and the quadratic formula.
• The stages required in answering a quadratic equation-based word problem are as follows:
• Variable ‘x’ should be used to represent the problem’s unknown amount
• Form an equation in terms of ‘x’ using the provided statement
• Complete and solve the equation

Physics

• A force is a physical cause that alters or tends to modify the size or form of the body, as well as its state of rest or motion.
• When a body slides (or rolls) across a rough surface, a force acts on it in the opposite direction of its motion, together with the surface in contact. Frictional Force is the name given to this force.
• Power is defined as the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred.
• An object’s energy is assessed in terms of its ability to do labor.
• An optimal machine is one in which there is no energy loss in any way. The output energy of a machine has always been less than the energy input.
• A lens is a transparent refracting medium limited by two curved, often spherical surfaces.
• The radius of the sphere, of which the lens surface is a part, is referred to as the radius of curvature of the lens surface.
• Calorimetry’s first principle asserts that when a hot body is combined with or in touch with a cold body, heat energy transfers from the hot body to the cold body until both bodies reach the same temperature.

Chemistry

• The periodic table is a tabular organization of chemical elements arranged in the order of their atomic number, electron configurations, and recurrent chemical characteristics.
• Chemical bond strength varies greatly, resulting in the creation of either strong or main bonds or weak or secondary links. Ionic or electrovalent bonds, covalent bonds, and co-ordinate covalent or dative bonds are examples of strong bonds.
•  Dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonds are examples of weak bonds.
• Amphoteric oxides are metal oxides that react with both acids and bases to form salts and water. Lead oxide and zinc oxide are two examples of amphoteric oxides.
• Ammonia is collected by keeping the mouth of the collecting jar downwards over the delivery tube. Gas is dried by passing it through a drying tower filled with CaO. The procedure employs the use of warm water.
• The chemical formula of sulphuric acid is H2SO4 and it has a molecular mass of 98. Because of its widespread application in a variety of sectors, sulphuric acid is known as the “King of Chemicals”.
• Alcohol is an organic molecule that has the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) attached to a saturated carbon atom. Originally, the term “alcohol” referred to the principal alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which was the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages.

Biology

• Cell division begins with cell expansion, then moves on to DNA replication, nuclear division, and lastly, cytoplasmic division. Cell division must be done in a coordinated way so that each cell splits appropriately and the offspring cells’ genomes stay intact.
• The loss of water from plants as vapor through the lenticels is referred to as  transpiration. Lenticels are microscopic apertures in the bark of woody stems and twigs, as well as other plant organs. Water vapor escape via the lenticels, like cuticular transpiration, is insufficient when compared to stomatal transpiration.
• Consequently, lenticular transpiration becomes considerable in plants exposed to extremely dry circumstances.
• Chemotropism refers to plant movement in reaction to a chemical input. During fertilisation, the development of the pollen tube towards the ovule in a flower is a famous illustration of this sort of movement.
• The working of the human eye is as follows –

Light enters the eye through the cornea and pupil of the eye. Through the cornea, the light is converged and forms a real, diminished, inverted image of the object on the retina; the retina’s light-sensitive cells become activated due to the incidence of light and generate electric signals. Through the optic nerve, these electric signals are transmitted to the brain for interpretation. Through the brain’s interpretation, the image is inverted and we see a real image of the object.

#### ICSE Class 9 Revision Notes

Students can refer to the below-mentioned revision notes for Class 9:

Mathematics

• Expansion is the action of expanding; theoretically, it is the removal of all brackets in the phrase.
• In mathematics, we frequently meet statements in which two sets of two words are placed in brackets side by side, as in (a + b)(a – b). This necessitated the removal of brackets and the streamlining of the text.
• Factorization or factoring is the process of decomposing one item (such as a number, a polynomial, or a matrix) into a product of other things, or factors, which when multiplied together yield the original.
• A median is a straight line that connects the vertex of a triangle to the opposite side’s midpoint. A triangle has three medians that intersect at a location known as the centroid, which is depicted by point G. Every median is divided by the centroid in a ratio of 2:1. In a triangle, if the square on one side equals the sum of the squares on the other two sides, the triangle is right-angled.
• Secondary data is information that was gathered previously by someone other than the investigator for a specified reason.
• The locus of a point traveling in a plane is a circle whose distance from a given point in the plane is always constant.
• An ordered pair is a pair of two items that occur in a specific order, i.e. the order of the objects is crucial. The ordered pairings (6, 8) and (8, 6) are distinct.
• A system of simultaneous linear equations is formed by a pair of linear equations in the same two variables.

Physics

• The International System of Unit (SI) is the most extensively used measuring system and the current version of the metric system.
• The unit is a quantity of constant magnitude that is used to calculate the magnitudes of other quantities of the same kind.
• The distance traveled per unit of time is referred to as speed. It is the rate at which an item moves.
• Newton’s First Law asserts that unless acted upon by an external force, an object will stay at rest or in uniform motion along a straight path.
• Light rays are reflected when they strike a flat mirror, and the outgoing beam of light is reflected at the same angle as the angle of incidence.
• Reflection is the recurrence of light into the very same medium after hitting a surface
• The charge obtained on a glass rod when rubbed with silk is referred to as a positive charge, whereas the charge acquired on an ebonite rod when rubbed with wool is referred to as a negative charge.
• Electric current is the pace at which electric charges flow across a conductor.

Chemistry

• A chemical symbol is a one or two-letter notation that represents a chemical element.
• The valency of an atom or radical denotes its ability to combine. The number of hydrogen atoms that will mix with or displace one atom of that element or radical.
• It is the mathematical expression used to depict a chemical process. It has reactants to the left of the direction sign and products to the right.
• An atom is a matter particle that specifies a chemical element uniquely. An atom is made up of a core nucleus surrounded by one or more electrons. Each electron carries a negative charge.
• Kinetic energy(KE) diminishes as temperature falls. Theoretically, when the temperature approaches zero, all motion ceases and the KE value becomes zero. Absolute zero is the temperature at which all molecular motion is supposed to cease. The temperature scale is known as the Kelvin scale or the absolute scale. There can be no lower temperature than absolute zero.
• A pollutant is characterised as an unwanted substance that is present in excess in the environment.
• Acid rain is caused by air pollution.
• Acid rain is created by a chemical reaction that occurs when substances such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere. These compounds can travel very high into the atmosphere, where they mix and react with water, oxygen, and other molecules to generate highly acidic pollution known as acid rain.

Biology

• All living species’ basic structural and functional unit is the cell.
• It is the smallest portion of an organism’s body, capable of autonomous existence and executing the basic activities of life.
• An organ is made up of many types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function within the body.
• A tissue is a collection of cells that have a common origin, structure, and function and are bound together by a cementing material.
• A bisexual flower has both male and female reproductive components. Bisexual flowers are also referred to as hermaphrodites.
• The micropyle imbibes water in the seed, softening the seed coverings and allowing the embryo to emerge.  It allows gases to diffuse and thus allows the embryo to breathe.Serums include pathogen-specific antitoxins. On a broad scale, genetically engineered bacteria are employed to generate serum chemicals.
• Digestion refers to the act of breaking down complex dietary items into simpler forms that may be absorbed and digested by the body.
• Any disease caused by germs and spread by the air is considered an airborne ailment. There are several varieties of such disorders, all of which are important in both human and veterinary medicine.