NCERT Books Class 12 PDF

NCERT Books Class 12 PDF

All CBSE affiliated schools across the country refer to NCERT textbook Class 12. The students need a deep understanding of the concepts and topics in their syllabus to prepare well for their board exams. NCERT books Class 12 benefit the students in understanding every topic and concept thoroughly. The subject-wise concepts are explained in an easy-to-understand language accompanied with diagrams if necessary.

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books PDF Download

CBSE Class 12 NCERT books are the perfect solutions for the Class 12 students to prepare for the board exams. NCERT books help them have a clear understanding of the core concepts of each and every chapter. 

NCERT Books for Class  12

NCERT Class  12 Science Books


  • NCERT Book Class 12 Physics Part 1
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Physics Part 2


  • NCERT Book Class 12 Chemistry Part 1
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Chemistry Part 2


  • NCERT Book Class 12 Mathematics Part 1
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Mathematics Part 2


  • NCERT Book Class 12 Biology Part 1
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Biology Part 2

NCERT Class 12 Commerce Books


  • NCERT Book Class 12 Accountancy Part 1
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Accountancy Part 1

Business Studies:

  • NCERT Book Class 12 Business Studies Part 1
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Business Studies Part 1


  • NCERT Book Class 12 Introductory Microeconomics 
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Introductory Macroeconomics

NCERT Class 12 Humanities Books


  • NCERT Book Class 12 Geography: Fundamentals of Human Geography
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Geography: India-People and Economy 
  • NCERT Book Class 12 Geography: Practical Working Geography Part II


  • NCERT Book Class 12 History: Themes in Indian History 1
  • NCERT Book Class 12 History: Themes in Indian History 2
  • NCERT Book Class 12 History: Themes in Indian History 3

Political Science:

  • NCERT Class 12 Political Science Book: Contemporary World Politics 
  • NCERT Class 12 Political Science Book: Politics in Independent India

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Books


  • NCERT Class 12 Sociology Book: Indian Society
  • NCERT Class 12 Sociology Book: Social Change and Development in India

NCERT Class 12 Hindi Books


  • NCERT Hindi Class 12 Book: Antra
  • NCERT Hindi Class 12 Book: Antra Bhag 2
  • NCERT Hindi Class 12 Book: Aroh
  • NCERT Hindi Class 12 Book: Vitan

NCERT Class 12 English Books 


  • NCERT English Book Class 12: Flamingo 
  • NCERT English Book Class 12: Kaleidoscope
  • NCERT English Book Class 12: Vistas 

NCERT Books for CBSE Class 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Books

Most schools recommend students to follow NCERT Class 12 books because of their clear,precise and accurate explanations given in the books. The books explain the numerical and theoretical sections with a direct approach. 

NCERT Class  12 Physics Book 

Physics Book Part 1  Chapter by Chapter Synopsis

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields

Chapter 1 This chapter introduces the concepts of electric charges and fields to the students. Students learn about the electric ions like electrons, protons, and neutrons and their influence on the electric flow. The chapter explains how opposite charges attract. 

The students also learn about conductors and insulators. This chapter also explains Coulomb’s law and Gauss’s law to the students in-depth. The exercise at the end of the chapter is  designed to check the students’ knowledge of what they have learned from the chapter.

Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance 

Chapter 2 talks about electrostatic potential and capacitance in various electric fields. The topic explains different derivations and formulas that the students need to understand to answer all the questions regarding the chapter.

The NCERT Physics solution helps the students calculate the potential gradient of the external field. 

The students learn about the role of capacitors in the storage of electric charges. After thoroughly studying the chapter, the class 12 students can differentiate electric energy from masses and know the definition of electric fields.

Chapter 3: Current Electricity 

In Chapter 3, students have been introduced to static electricity in the previous chapter. This chapter helps the students develop a profound knowledge of concepts; electric resistivity, electric conductivity, drift velocity, electric resistance, etc. The students learn about Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s rules from the ‘Current Electricity’ chapter.

Apart from the theoretical section, students learn calculations and derivations. The knowledge helps the students solve several numerical problems associated with the topic.

Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Chapter 4 in the NCERT Physics book of Class 12 students covers significant concepts like how moving charge influences the arising magnetism. The students also learn about the basic ideas of magnetic force, Ampere’s Circuital law, and many more. 

The topics help students attain a better understanding of the subject as a whole. As the chapter carries a good weightage, a thorough study will help students score better marks in the exam.

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

The chapter teaches the difference between Magnetism and Matter. Physicists have found magnetic properties in various substances as they react when they get close to a magnetic field. The students get a detailed idea about several types of magnets and their fundamental properties. The chapter discusses the attractive and directive properties. 

The chapter covers some of the most crucial laws to explain the reasons behind the attraction.

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic Induction happens when an electric flux and electric circuit are connected. When an electromagnetic force is formed within the unit due to the electromagnetic connection, the incident is referred to as Electromagnetic Induction. The topic as the crux of the Physics is vital for the Class 12 students. The students also learn about Lenz’s Fleming’s right-hand rules and Faraday’s theory that describe the application of various inductions. 

The chapter discusses the most crucial topics like Eddy currents, motional electromagnetic force, self and mutual induction, and their coefficients. This chapter depicts how the coils are grouped in series or parallel to retain the smooth electric flow.

Chapter 7: Alternating Current 

As the students learn about direct current, this chapter comes with an extensive explanation of how current changes its directions alternatively. This mechanism has led to the production of AC alternators, AC motors, and transformers. The chapter deals with secondary current and voltage. The students also learn about electric resonance, inductors, and capacitance inductance from this chapter.

The chapter presents vital diagrams to explain the topics. The Class 12 students learn to prove an electric circuit is compatible with AC.

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves 

Chapter 8 talks about electromagnetic waves. The students learn about different kinds of electromagnetic waves, ultraviolet, radio, infrared, visible light, Gamma-ray, X-ray, and microwaves, to name a few concepts.

Class 12 students are introduced to the essential elements of the wave through Maxwell’s equation, electromagnetic spectrum, and displacement current. The chapter discusses the sources, speed, and nature of the wave. The students will find some numerical and conceptual questions at the end of the chapter to get an idea regarding what kinds of questions can come in the examination.

Physics Book Part 2

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments 

Chapter 9 includes some fundamental topics like the properties of light, optical instruments, spherical mirrors, and mechanisms. The properties of light include reflection and refraction. It consists of prime formulae and diagrams to explain the subtopics more directly. The students must learn the chapter in-depth as it comprises some core topics. 

Chapter 10: Wave Optics 

The chapter teaches the students about wave optics that present the natural behaviour and waves of light. Ray estimation is an integral element of this phenomenon. In this chapter, the students learn about Maxwell Electromagnetic Theory and Huygens Wave Theory.

The students also learn about various wavefronts such as spherical wavefronts, cylindrical wavefronts, plane wavefronts, etc. The chapter focuses on changing shapes of the wavefront and wave normal. The students need to solve the numerical problems given at the end of the chapter to strengthen the subject base.

Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Chapter 11 talks about the dual nature of each matter. The students learn about electron emission, photoelectric effects, Hertz’s Observation, Lenard’s Observation, etc. 

The students learn more about the photoelectric current factors which influence its intensity, potential, and frequency. The chapter covers everything from the particle nature of light to the photoelectric effect. The students learn about many experiments that carry the accountability of various theoretical claims. 

Chapter 12: Atoms

The chapter discusses the physical construction of an atom. An atom comprises six elements – Atomic Spectra, Bohr model, Dalton’s atomic model, Rutherford’s nuclear model, etc. 

An extensive study of atoms helps the students understand the behaviour of several substances. The students need to learn more about the Hydrogen Spectrum. Students acquire a clear idea about the properties of electrons like velocity, frequency, potential energy, etc. 

Chapter 13: Nuclei

Chapter 13 focuses on the core component of an atom – a nucleus. Topics like energy, force, radioactivity properties, and kit size have been discussed in the chapter. 

The chapter emphasizes how different atoms react differently based on the nuclei type. The students can acquire a deeper understanding of physics through a thorough study of the chapter. 

Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits 

The chapter teaches the students about the classification of metals, insulators, and semiconductors. The chapter helps the students to gain insight into various semiconductor diodes. 

The students must solve the exercises given at the end of the chapter to get an idea about what kind of questions can come in the board examination. 

Chapter 15: Communication System

The last chapter provides the students with a complete idea of the basics of communication. The students can learn about the topics like amplitude modulation, medium bandwidth, and more in the chapter. Knowledge of the technological concepts makes the students understand the complex matrices easily.  

NCERT Class  12 Chemistry 

Chapter By Chapter Synopsis Chemistry Book Part 1

Chapter 1: The Solid State

Chapter 1 talks about the internal structures and properties of molecules and compounds. Compounds consist of groups based on the solid-state concept. 

The chapter shares the same concepts with solid-state physics like Crystallography, Electronics, and Metallurgy. The chapter deals with concepts like crystalline solids, cell dimensions, and lattice structures. 

Chapter 2: Solutions 

The second chapter deals with a solution known to be a homogenous blend of two or more solutes and solvents. The elements that dissolve within are called the solute, and the medium is known as the solvent. One of the basic solvents is water.

The chapter includes topics like solutions and their types, concentration, and solubility of various solids and gases in liquids. 

Chapter 3: Electrochemistry 

One of the most crucial Chemistry chapters for the CBSE Class 12 students is Electrochemistry. The chapter covers the combined study of electronics and chemistry. The process determines whether a chemical reaction has produced an electric current. Currents are produced when electrons travel between electrode and electrolyte. 

Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics

Chemical kinetics deals with the rates of various chemical reactions. The chapter explains how the speed of chemical reactions is stimulated by temperature, reaction medium, or the use of catalysts. The chapter covers from the intermediate state to the final product. 

Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry

Surface chemistry, like surface physics, deals with chemical and physical changes on surfaces when two different matters come in contact. The core concepts include solid-liquid interfaces, solid-vacuum interfaces, and liquid-gas interfaces. The students learn about the applications of surface chemistry, similarly to surface engineering.

Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 

The chapter talks about the thousands of elements present in silver, gold, carbon, sulphur, etc. The elements can be isolated through chemical reactions. The element isolation processes need to be practised in laboratories. The students can practise the practical lessons in the school laboratories to learn the topic directly from real-life experiences 

Chapter 7: The p-Block Elements 

Scientists have named different blocks of the periodic tables based on their electronic configuration. According to these rules, the elements present in groups 13 to 18 are known as p-block elements. NCERT chemistry book solutions discuss the element groups in detail.

The elements are of three types – metals, non-metals, and metalloids. The students need to study the chapter thoroughly to acquire a clear idea about the p-block elements of the periodic table.

Chapter 8: The d- and f- Block Elements 

Like the p-block elements, d and f-block elements are segmented based on their nature. D-block elements are present in the groups between 3 to 12, and f-block components contain the metals of 6 and 7 periods. The topics have been described in the chemistry book elaborately.

Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds 

Coordination compounds are compounds with a metal ion at the centre with -ions of other elements with the core ions, called ligands. The connection between the metal ion and its ligands are coordinated covalent bonds. The students need to invest enough time to study the chapter. 

The complexes show various unknown properties that are discussed in the chapters in detail. 

Chemistry Book Part 2

Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

There exist two types of Hydrocarbons – Aliphatic and Aromatic. When these Hydrocarbons create a bond with halogen compounds, they are called Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. The halogen ions with strong electromagnetic power transform the hydrogen atoms into organic molecules and form the compounds. The students learn other significant aspects of the compounds in the chapter.

Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers 

It is one of the core concepts of organic chemistry. Alcohols, Ethers, and Phenols are of great use in our daily lives and are present in the food items we intake daily. The NCERT Chemistry book includes all these components with their usages and reactions. The hydrogen atoms are replaced by R-O or Ar-O Groups in the Ether compounds. 

Chapter 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 

The carbonyl group is one of the core functional groups in Organic Chemistry. 

When hydrogen and carbon are connected to carbonyl, it is called aldehydes. 

When two carbon molecules join the group, it is called ketones.

When an –OH Group joins the bond, it is known as carboxylic acid. 

The chemistry book comprises the equations in which the compounds participate with their properties.

Chapter 13: Amines 

Amines are compounds where hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecules are transformed by alkyl or aryl groups. Protein and amino acids are the derivatives of amines.

Amines consist of the nitrogen atom and a lone pair of electrons. The Group –NH2 is known as the Amino Group. 

Chapter 14: Biomolecules 

The human body is a combination of biology and chemistry. It carries millions of different atoms and molecules inside, and without these, our bodies cannot function. The chapter presents a thorough study of how chemicals are formed and help the human bodies work. The chapter is  an interesting one. It deals with essential molecules like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and hormones.

Chapter 15: Polymers 

Polymer is a product of our day-to-day usage. The most common polymer product is plastic. The NCERT Chemistry solution describes how polymers are shaped and their functions  at universal level.

Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life 

The last chapter combines the core concepts of all the other chapters allotted to the Chemistry syllabus. Students must have a complete idea of how each chapter plays a crucial role in creating the world and its organism. The chapter presents a summary of the entire syllabus in brief. The chapter also talks about medicines, detergents, and artificial food preservatives as these are the elements that come to use in our everyday lives. 

NCERT Class  12 Maths 

Mathematics Book Part 1

Chapter 1: Relations and Functions 

Chapter 2: Inverse Trigonometric Functions 

Chapter 3: Matrices 

Chapter 4: Determinants 

Chapter 5: Continuity and Differentiability 

Chapter 6: Application of Derivatives 

Mathematics Book Part 2

Chapter 7: Integrals 

Chapter 8: Application of Integrals 

Chapter 9: Differential Equations 

Chapter 10: Vector Algebra 

Chapter 11: Three Dimensional (3D) Geometry 

Chapter 12: Linear Programming

Chapter 13: Probability 

NCERT Class 12 Biology 

Chapter by Chapter Synopsis Unit VI – Reproduction 

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms 

Reproduction is a biological process that results in the birth of offspring of the same organism. The chapter includes the procreation process of various species.

The process can be classified into two kinds – asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. In the first one, the younger ones are reproduced without the gamete formation, and the second one refers to where the two parents of opposite sex procreate through the copulation process. The chapter  provides the students with detailed explanations, examples, and illustrations. 

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

The chapter discusses the sexual reproduction of flowering plants with a detailed description of the structure, processes, and morphology. The chapter continues elaborating the concepts like pre-fertilization, post-fertilization, and double-fertilization. 

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction 

The Human Reproduction chapter focuses on the concept of gametogenesis. The reproductive events of males and females are different in humans. The students can understand the difference through a detailed study of the chapter. The subtopics include the female reproductive system, male reproductive system, fertilization, implantation, menstrual cycle, gametogenesis, embryonic development, pregnancy, and lactation.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health 

Reproductive health talks about the reproductive organs and their functionalities. The World Health Organization (WHO) refers to reproductive health to be the healthy state of physical, behavioural, and emotional aspects of reproduction. The subtopics in the chapter include birth control, population explosion, pregnancy, infertility, sexually transmitted diseases, etc.

Unit 7 – Genetics and Evolution 

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation 

Genetics is one core concept of Biology. The chapter deals with the inheritance and variance of characters of the children from their parents. The chapter includes Mendel’s different Laws of Inheritance, sex determination, Inheritance in One Gene or Two Genes, Genetic Disorders, and Mutation. 

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance 

The chapter covers the concepts of DNA, RNA, Replication, Transcription, Translation, Human Genome Project, DNA Fingerprints, regular Gene Expression, etc. 

Chapter 7: Evolution 

The chapter focuses on the history of Earth. It includes Origin of Life, Evolution – A theory, Adaptive Radiation, Evidence of Evolution, Mechanisms of Evolution, Biological Evolution, Origin and Evolution of Man, etc.

Unit 7 -Biology in Human Welfare 

Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease 

The chapter focuses on genetic disorders and lifestyle as the two most crucial factors to affect human health.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 

Population growth has led to the need for more food production. The two prime concepts of plant breeding and animal husbandry have been taken as the primary tools to enhance food production. The chapter talks about tissue culture techniques and embryo transfer technology. 

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare 

Microbes refer to bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and microscopic animal and plant viruses. The chapter includes topics like Microbes in Industrial products, Microbes in Household Products, Microbes as Bio-fertilizers, Microbes in Biogas Production, and Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. 

Unit 9 -Biotechnology

Chapter 11: Biotechnology: Principles and Processes 

The concept of biotechnology includes the integration of organisms, cells, molecular analogues, natural sciences, etc. The chapter focuses on the principles, recombinant DNA technology tools and processes. 

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and Its Applications 

The chapter discusses the applications of biotechnology, including diagnostics, therapeutics, agriculture, waste treatment, bio mediation, processed food, etc. It also talks about biotechnical applications in medicine and agriculture, transgenic animals, and ethical issues. 

Unit 10 -Ecology 

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

The chapter involves the concepts of the four levels of biological organizations- organisms, populations, biomes, and communities. The topics are described in detail. It includes subjects like organisms and their environment.

Chapter 14: Ecosystems 

The Ecosystem is known to be nature’s functional unit that houses the organisms. The organisms live and communicate with each other in the Ecosystem. The subtopics in the chapter include structure and function of the Ecosystem, decomposition, productivity, energy flow, ecological pyramids, ecological succession, ecosystem services, and nutrient cycling. 

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation 

The chapter deals with the topics like diversity in Species, Genes, and Ecology. It talks about Patterns and Loss of Diversity,  Diversity, different types of species, biodiversity conservation, etc. 

The chapter includes the conservation through tissue culture, propagation, cryopreservation of gametes, and vitro fertilization.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues 

The last chapter is on environmental issues. It includes the subtopics like air pollution, water pollution, radioactive waste, solid waste, Greenhouse Effects, Global warming, Ozone Depletion, Deforestation, and Degradation caused by faulty use and lack of maintenance of resources. The chapter highlights the environmental issues that currently affect the animal and plant kingdom on a daily basis. 

Why Choose NCERT Books Class 12 for Board Exam Preparation?

After studying the NCERT books and the entire syllabus of the Class 12 CBSE syllabus, the students get clarity of the concepts and topics. Regular practice helps the students answer the questions in different formats. Many references are available for CBSE syllabus books in the market, but it is best to refer to NCERT solutions while preparing for the board exams. 

The benefits of studying with NCERT Books Class 12 are:

  • The students get experts’ guidance.
  • It makes the study process approachable and streamlined.
  • The answers are easy-to-understand and precise. 
  • The explanations along with diagrams help the students score high in the exams.
  • Students can  learn and precise  answers  from  the solution books.

What Makes Extramarks Perfect for Exam Preparation?

The reasons why Extramarks is the best option for exam preparation are,

  • Subject-matter experts have drafted the solutions.
  • The answers are precise yet to the point. .   
  • The NCERT solutions follow the CBSE guidelines.
  • The students find accurate information and explanations.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the subjects in which the solutions are available?

The NCERT solutions are available for all subjects.

2. Where will I find subject-wise solutions by NCERT?

You will find the subject-wise solutions by NCERT on Extramarks official website.

3. Which syllabus do the NCERT books follow?

NCERT books follow the CBSE syllabus. Every chapter has been explained in  a detailed,  informative and systematic manner.