The subject of Science gets divided into three main branches of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology after Class 6 and continues to remain one of the most important subjects. Classes 11 and 12 form two of the most crucial years in terms of marks in this subject as these years will determine college admissions and future career growth.
Though the CBSE syllabus is student-friendly, there are sections that students might find a bit more challenging than the others. This is why the Board itself has recommended the regular use of NCERT solutions Class 11 Chemistry for better understanding of each concept. These solutions are easily downloadable comprehensive guides consisting of detailed explanations for each topic in plain and simple language. Since these have been compiled by subject matter experts, you can be sure that they will sufficiently aid your exam preparations.
Chemistry NCERT Solutions for Class 11 – Chapter Wise
Chapter 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry – Term I
This chapter explains to students about the importance of chemistry, molecular mass and atomic mass. Few basic theories and laws like Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s atomic theory and the law of conservation of mass are explained in brief under this chapter. You will also solve problems based on determining the molecular weight of compounds, mass percent and concentration. You will get a clear idea about the empirical and molecular formulae, molarity, molality and mole concept.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry for First Term:
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry: General Introduction: Importance and scope of Chemistry. Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Chapter 2: Structure of Atom – Term I
Students will learn about Thomson’s atomic model, subatomic particles, Bohr’s model, Rutherford’s atomic model and quantum mechanical model of atom. Problems on relationship between frequency and wavelength, energy associated with electromagnetic radiation and subatomic particles are present in this chapter. You will get to know how to write the electron configurations and the electron transition in different shells which is important for the exam.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom for First Term:
Structure of Atom: Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Chapter 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties – Term I
From the exam point of view, classification of elements is very important. Most of the questions in the final exam and various competitive exams appear from this chapter. So learning all the concepts from this chapter is important. From this chapter, students will also learn about the s-block, p-block, d-block and f-block elements from the periodic table, trends in physical and chemical properties and chemical reactivity. By learning this chapter thoroughly, students will obtain a good score in the exam.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties for First Term:
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties: Modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Chapter 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure – Term I
Chemistry is based on the things which we observe in our surroundings and is called the central science. The topics discussed in this chapter are – VSEPR Theory, Lewis structures, Valence Bond Theory, polar character of covalent bonds and hydrogen bonding. Students will learn how to draw Lewis dot symbols for molecules, atoms and polyatomic ions. The solutions at BYJU’S contain diagrams for each concept to provide visual learning experience for the students.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure for First Term:
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules(qualitative idea only), Hydrogen bond.
Chapter 5: States of Matter – Term II
This chapter explains the intermolecular forces and how they affect the physical state of a substance. It deals with other concepts associated with gaseous and liquid states of matter. This is the main reason why this chapter is important for the exam. Students will be able to understand the Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law, Gay Lussac’s Law and Avogadro Law which carries more marks as per the exam pattern. Problems on finding partial pressure, critical temperature and pressure, Van der Waals force and other intermolecular forces are present in this chapter.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 5 States of Matter for Second Term:
States of Matter: Gases and Liquids: Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation and deviation from ideal behaviour.
Chapter 6: Thermodynamics – Term II
It is a branch of science which explains the relationship between heat and the other energy forms. On the basis of exchange of matter and energy, thermodynamic systems are divided into three types – open, closed and isolated system. Students will learn more about the concepts like – terms in thermodynamics, applications, calorimetry, enthalpies, spontaneity and Gibbs energy change and equilibrium. The problems in the NCERT Solutions are answered in a systematic manner completely based on the latest syllabus of the CBSE board.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics for Second Term:
Chemical Thermodynamics: Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction) Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes.
Chapter 7: Equilibrium – Term II
From this chapter, students will learn buffer solutions, equilibrium constant and the common ion effect. As this chapter contains a lot of concepts, thorough understanding of each of them is important to perform well in the annual exam. The solutions contain clear cut explanations for each and every concept so that all the queries of the students are clarified. The concepts discussed in this chapter are – solid liquid equilibrium, applications of equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibria, acids, bases and salts, buffer solutions etc.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 7 Equilibrium for Second Term:
Equilibrium: Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Chapter 8: Redox Reactions – Term I
The fact here is that the field of electrochemistry deals with redox reactions. It is important for the students to learn this chapter in order to score good marks in the final exam. Students will get questions based on the classical idea of redox reaction, redox reactions in terms of electron transfer reactions, oxidation number and electrode processes. Students are recommended to first complete the entire chapter using the NCERT textbook prescribed by the CBSE board.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 8 Redox Reaction for First Term:
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number.
Chapter 9: Hydrogen – Term I
Hydrogen is the lightest element with one electron and proton. The abundant element in the entire universe is dihydrogen. Hydrogen is an important element which makes up 80% of the entire mass of the universe. It is very important for the students to know about this element in order to secure good marks in the final exam. Students will also learn about preparation and properties of dihydrogen and its applications in our daily life. It might be difficult for the students to grasp all these concepts at a stretch, so making use of a perfect study material will help you through it.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen for First Term:
Hydrogen: Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, hydrides-ionic covalent and
interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen as a fuel.
Chapter 10: The s-Block Elements – Term II
Students will learn about the Alkali metals and Alkaline earth metals which are the group 1 and group 2 in the periodic table. Some of the concepts like physical and chemical properties of s-block elements, general characteristics of compounds and about important compounds like calcium. The biological importance of calcium and magnesium is also explained clearly in this chapter. Periodic table and the elements present in them is a hot topic from the exam perspective. For this reason, students are highly recommended to learn all these concepts thoroughly to score well.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements for Second Term:
s -Block Elements: Group 1 and Group 2 Elements -General introduction, electronic configuration,
occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in
the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical
reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.
Chapter 11: The p-Block Elements – Term II
The elements present between the 13th and 18th group are called the p-block elements. As this chapter has a lot of concepts, it is very important for the students to revise it regularly. Students will get a gist of the p-block elements, where the last electron enters or is found on the p-subshell. Some of the concepts which you will learn in this chapter are – boron family, important compounds of boron, uses of aluminium and boron, carbon family, allotropes of carbon and important compounds of silicon and carbon.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements for Second Term:
Some p -Block Elements: General Introduction to p -Block Elements
Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron – physical and chemical properties.
Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements.
Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties.
Chapter 12: Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques – Term I
When it comes to exam preparation, both organic and inorganic chemistry plays an important role in attaining good marks. This chapter will introduce you to concepts such as organic compounds, structural representation, classification, nomenclature, isomerism, purification of organic compounds and quantitative analysis. If students are not able to learn these concepts using the NCERT textbook they can download the solutions which are available online for absolutely free of cost.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles for First Term:
Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques: General introduction, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electrometric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Chapter 13: Hydrocarbons – Term II
The scientific study of properties, structure, reactions, composition and synthesis of organic compounds is called organic chemistry. It teaches the students about concepts like alkanes and its preparation from alkyl halides, unsaturated hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids. Students will also learn about the physical and chemical properties of alkanes as per the prescribed CBSE syllabus. As this chapter is important from the exam point of view, students must highly concentrate on all the concepts and memorise it thoroughly to perform well in the exam.
Topics Covered in Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons for Second Term:
Hydrocarbons: Classification of Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:
Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions.
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Chapter 14: Environmental Chemistry
Various concepts which are related to the environment like water pollution, atmospheric pollution, soil pollution and its reasons are explained briefly in this chapter. Along with this students will also learn about the use of pesticides to reduce soil pollution and strategies to control pollution like waste disposal. By learning this chapter thoroughly, students will get to know about the pollution occurring in nature by our activities.
NCERT Chemistry Class 11
- Brief explanations are provided for each question.
- The numerical equations are solved in a stepwise manner.
- The answers are clear cut and precise completely based on the CBSE syllabus.
- Subject matter experts design the solutions after conducting a vast research.
- Solutions are available with a free download options