From the earliest levels of excavations, they have found bones of wild animals such as the deer and pig. In later levels, more bones of sheep, goats, and cattle are most common. It shows a shift from hunting animals to herding them for food and farming.
When people grow plants, they stayed in the same place for a long time to look after the plants, to water, to weed, and to drive away animals and birds- till the grain ripened.
(a) Hunter-gatherers chose to live in caves and rock shelters because they provided shelter from the rain, heat and wind.
(b) Grasslands developed around 12,000 years ago.
The fire could have been used by the hunter-gatherers in the following three ways:
(i) as a source of light
(ii) to cook meat
(iii) to scare away animals
Even today, we use fire for cooking food.
Four major reasons compelled the hunter-gatherers to move from place to place.
They could not stay in one place for a long time because the availability of plant and animal resources for food was very less. Therefore, they had to go elsewhere in search of these resources.
Animals move from place to place in search of smaller prey, and grass and leaves. That is why those who hunted them for food had to follow their movements.
Plants and trees bear fruit in different seasons. So, people may have moved from season to season in search of different kinds of plants.
People, plants, and animals need water to survive. When water was not available in one place, they moved in search of it to another place.
In present times, people travel for different reasons. They usually travel for picnics, business purposes, meet their friends and relatives and visit places for vacation.
(i) Hunter-gatherers kept moving from place to place in search of food while farmers and herders grew their plants and crops for food from their living place.
(ii) Hunter-gatherers did not build any permanent houses; mostly, they lived in caves while farmers and herders built huts and houses.
(iii) Hunter-gatherers did not protect animals and plants while farmers and herders protected plants and domesticated animals for food.
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