(i) In today's world, merchants and bankers do not have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century.
(ii) The idea of democratic and republic institutions have changed the whole scenario.
(iii) Everything from revenue collection to the price of goods in the market comes under common financial rules which are governed by a parliamentary system, unlike in the eighteenth century.
Sa‘adat Khan held the combined offices of subadari, diwani and faujdari; that is to say, he was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the province of Awadh.
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.
(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in 1724.
(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa‘adat Khan.
The following were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position:
(i) He, as the Mughal governor of the Deccan provinces, exercised full control over its political and financial administration.
(ii) He took advantage of the turbulent political condition in the Deccan amongst the court nobility to strengthen his power and became the actual ruler of that region.
(iii) Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrative officials from northern India; they welcomed the new opportunities in the Deccan.
(iv) He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs. Although he was still a servant of the Mughal Emperor, he ruled independently without seeking any direction and interference from Delhi.
(v)The Mughal emperor merely confirmed the decisions already taken by the Nizam.
(i) The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to occupy the Mughal territories and to collect taxes from the conquered regions.
(ii) Under the Peshwas, the Marathas developed a very successful military organisation.
(iii) Between 1720 and 1761, the Maratha Empire expanded. It gradually chipped away at the authority of the Mughal Empire.
(iv) Malwa and Gujarat were seized from the Mughals by the 1720s.
(v) By the 1730s, the Maratha king was recognised as the overlord of the entire Deccan peninsula.
(vi) He possessed the right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi in the entire region.
(i) The Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls.
(ii) The combined forces of the Sikhs were known as the grand army (dal khalsa).
(iii) The forces used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known as “resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas)”.
(iv) A system called rakhi was introduced, offering protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the agricultural produce.
(i) Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the jagirdari system to decrease the influence of Mughal in their provinces.
(ii) The Nawabs reduced the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals and appointed their own loyal servants to vacant positions.
(iii) The jagirdars appointed by the Mughals were corrupt so the Nawabs reduced the size of jagirs, and appointed their own loyal servants to vacant positions.
(iv) They checked the accounts of jagirdars to prevent cheating and corruption.
(v) The revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the courts of the Nawabs.
subadar provincial governor
faujdar a Mughal military commander
ijaradar a revenue farmer
misl a band of Sikh warriors
chauth tax levied by the Marathas
kunbis Maratha peasant warriors
umara a high noble
Yes, the NCERT book has been designed keeping in mind the pattern of paper that will be presented in the exam to students. The NCERT book is sufficient to study for the exam as it has everything related to the exam and contains all information out of which the questions will be asked in the exam. But if you want to prepare a little bit extra, we suggest that you go through the NCERT class 7 solutions.
When you are studying the NCERT book for math and other subjects for your class 7 exams, refer to the NCERT class 7 solutions simultaneously so you can see where you are going wrong and what are you getting right in your exercises’ attempt.
The class 7th is very crucial as it is among the major middle school classes during which the child’s base is formed in math and science and even in other subjects like English. Thus, it is students must study smartly in this class and ace their exams while getting all the help they need from the NCERT 7 solutions given by Extramarks.
Yes, absolutely. The NCERT solutions provided by Extramarks for class 7 are eloquent and elaborate at best and are thus useful for students studying for the final exams of class 7. The students will have many questions and doubts regarding the NCERT solutions for class 7 and this is why the solutions have been elaborated well to help students understand the answers to exercises.
Yes, the NCERT solutions for Math and other subjects for class 7 are available for free from Extramarks.