The kingdom of Chahamanas (Chauhans) exercised control over the territory which was located in the region of modern state - New Delhi.
(i) Rashtrakutas in the Deccan initially were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
(ii) In the mid-eighth century, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha (literally, the golden womb).
(iii) When this ritual was performed with the help of Brahmanas, it was thought that the sacrificer could be reborn as a Kshatriya, even if he was a non-Kshatriya by birth.
(iv) When the Rashtrakutas gained power and wealth, they declared themselves independent from their overlords and established their own territories.
Delhi and Ajmer were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas.
The “elections” in Uttaramerur:
In the elections for the members of the Sabha in Uttaramerur, names of those eligible to be members of these committees were written on small tickets of palm leaf and kept in an earthenware pot, from which a young boy was asked to pick the tickets, one by one for each committee.
Present day panchayat elections:
The present day panchayat elections are held based on the universal adult franchise. Every adult in India, irrespective of their wealth and the communities, she/he belongs to, has one vote.
The parties involved in the "tripartite struggle" were:
Activities associated with Chola temples:
(i) Chola temples were centres of craft production. They were also endowed with land by rulers as well as by others.
(ii) They were not only places of worship but also were the hub of economic, social and cultural life as well.
(iii) Priests, garland makers, cooks, sweepers, musicians, dancers, etc. lived near the temple and provided many varieties of services.
(iv) Temples were also associated with the making of Chola bronze images which are considered amongst the finest in the world.
Kind of irrigation works developed in the Tamil region:
(i) Water from the channels of river Kaveri provided the necessary moisture for agriculture, particularly the cultivation of rice.
(ii) In the Delta region, embankments were built to prevent flooding.
(iii) Canals were constructed to carry water to the fields.
(iv) Sluice-gates were built to regulate the outflow of water from a tank into the channels that irrigated the fields.
(v) In some areas, wells were dug, and in some places huge tanks were constructed to collect rainwater.
(i) The new dynasties in specific regions were acknowledged by existing kings as their subordinates or samantas.
(ii) They were expected to bring gifts for their kings or overlords, be present at their courts and provide them with military support.
(iii) They gained power and wealth and declared themselves maha-samanta, mahamandaleshvara (the great lord of a “circle” or region) and so on.
(iv) They asserted their independence from their overlords.
(v) They performed rituals to be reborn themselves as Kshatriya with the help of Brahmanas.
(vi) They fought war with neighbouring regions to gain power and also built temple to acknowledge it.
(i) Qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola Empire are:
Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, as well as those of his relatives, cannot contest the elections.
Gurjara-Pratiharas – Gujarat and Rajasthan
Rashtrakutas – Western Deccan
Palas – Bengal
Cholas - Tamil Nadu
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