(i) Today, India is known for its multi-cultural identities; the country follows the principle of "unity in diversity". People living here are united by the common historical pasts and knowledge. Every Indian consider this nation as his or her motherland.
(ii) India’s social and cultural units do not pose a challenge to national integration because the country has adopted a secular constitution and a democratic-republic political system, with universal suffrage.
(i) As the empire expanded to encompass different regions with different cultural practices and beliefs, the Mughal rulers recruited mansabdars from diverse backgrounds.
(ii) This strategy prevented any challenge to the Mughal authority, since it brought the powerful local chieftains under the control of the Empire.
(i) The Mughals emphasized their Mongol descent because Genghis Khan's memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors.
(ii) On the other hand, they were proud of their Timurid lineage, because their great ancestor had invaded and occupied Delhi in 1398.
(i) Zamindars were intermediaries to the Mughal rulers; they were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains.
(ii) In some areas, the zamindars exercised a great deal of power.
(iii) Sometimes, zamindars and peasants of the same caste allied and rebelled against the Mughal authority.
(i) Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs.
(ii) However, mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs.
(iii) They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments (jagirs) collected their servants for them, while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.
The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were Delhi, Sind, Kabul, Mewar, Marwar, Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, and Deccan.
(a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half-brother, was Kabul.
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
(c) If zat determined a mansabdar’s rank and salary, sawar indicated his cavalrymen.
(d) Abul Fazl, Akbar’s friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of sulh-i kul so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
Sisodiya Rajput Mewar
Rathor Rajput Marwar
Nur Jahan Jahangir
(i) Yes. Peasants are important today for the economy.
(ii) The gap in the income between the rich and the poor in India has changed significantly from the period of the Mughals, due to the growth of advanced science and technology in agriculture.
(i) The income from land revenue was the main source of income of the Mughal Empire.
(ii) The Mughal Empire was very large. A huge amount of finance for running the administration and maintaining law and order came from the revenue.
(iii) The land revenue was also important for salaries of the soldiers and officials and welfare works for the people.
(iv) Land revenue played a significant role in the economy of the Mughal Empire.
(i) Akbar interacted extensively on religions with religious scholars such as the ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests (Roman Catholics), and Zoroastrians.
(ii) This experience made him realise that some of the religious scholars who emphasized ritual and dogma were often bigots. Their teachings created divisions and disharmony amongst his subjects.
(iii) This led to the birth of the idea of sulh-i kul or "universal peace". This idea emphasized more on tolerance and taught against discrimination between people of different religions in Akbar’s realm.
(iv) It focused on universally applicable values such as ethics, honesty, justice, and peace.
(v) This governance model was later followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well.
Yes, the NCERT book has been designed keeping in mind the pattern of paper that will be presented in the exam to students. The NCERT book is sufficient to study for the exam as it has everything related to the exam and contains all information out of which the questions will be asked in the exam. But if you want to prepare a little bit extra, we suggest that you go through the NCERT class 7 solutions.
When you are studying the NCERT book for math and other subjects for your class 7 exams, refer to the NCERT class 7 solutions simultaneously so you can see where you are going wrong and what are you getting right in your exercises’ attempt.
The class 7th is very crucial as it is among the major middle school classes during which the child’s base is formed in math and science and even in other subjects like English. Thus, it is students must study smartly in this class and ace their exams while getting all the help they need from the NCERT 7 solutions given by Extramarks.
Yes, absolutely. The NCERT solutions provided by Extramarks for class 7 are eloquent and elaborate at best and are thus useful for students studying for the final exams of class 7. The students will have many questions and doubts regarding the NCERT solutions for class 7 and this is why the solutions have been elaborated well to help students understand the answers to exercises.
Yes, the NCERT solutions for Math and other subjects for class 7 are available for free from Extramarks.