Merchants, artisans such as weavers, native traders and craftspersons lived in the “Black Towns” in cities such as Madras.
Water supplied to the city of Thanjavur came from wells and tanks.
(a) The Rajarajeshvara temple was built in Thanjavur.
(b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti.
(c) Hampi was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.
(d) The Dutch established a settlement at Masulipatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
Craft production in cities like Calcutta was different from that in cities like Thanjavur in the following manner:
(i) Craftspersons in Thanjavur were independent, whereas in Calcutta they were regulated and dominated by European officials. Thus, there was a decline of the independence of craftspersons.
(ii) In Thanjavur, craftspersons were free to produce their creative and specialized crafts at their will, whereas in Calcutta craftspersons worked on a system of advances which meant that they had to weave cloth which was already promised to European agents.
(iii) The Thanjavur craftspersons had liberty to sell their crafts and textiles, whereas in Calcutta they could not sell their own cloth or weaving their own patterns.
(iv) In Calcutta, they had to reproduce the designs supplied to them by the Company agents.
(v) In Calcutta, the native traders and craftspersons now had to move into the Black Towns established by the European companies within these new cities.
(i)People from distant lands visited Surat because the city was the emporium of western trade during the Mughal period. It was the gateway for trade with West Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz.
(ii)Surat has also been called the gate to Mecca because many pilgrim ships set sail from here.
(iii)In the 17th century, the Portuguese, Dutch and English had their factories and warehouses at Surat.
(iv)The city had several retail and wholesale shops selling cotton textiles.
(v)The textiles of Surat were famous for their gold lace borders (zari) and the textile was popular in the markets of West Asia, Africa and Europe.
(vi)The local rulers built numerous rest-houses to provide various facilities to the people who visited the city. There were magnificent buildings and many pleasure parks.
(vii)The Kathiawad seths or mahajans (moneychangers) had huge banking houses at Surat. The Surat hundis were honoured in Cairo in Egypt, Basra in Iraq and Antwerp in Belgium.
(i) Craftspersons were very important for the building and maintenance of temples.
(ii) For example, the skills and services of the Panchalas or Vishwakarma community, consisting of goldsmiths, bronzesmiths, blacksmiths, masons and carpenters, were essential to the building of temples.
(iii) They were also helpful in the artwork in copper and silver like making idols, designing the walls and the roofs.
(iv) Weavers such as the Saliyar or Kaikkolars were prosperous communities which made donations to temples. They also produced cloth for flags to be used in the temple festival.
(v) At Svamimalai, a temple town, the sthapatis or sculptors made exquisite bronze idols and tall, ornamental bell metal lamps.
(i) Towns grew around temples because they were often central to the economy and society.
(ii) Rulers built temples to demonstrate their devotion to various deities.
(iii) They also endowed temples with grants of land and money to carry out elaborate rituals, feed pilgrims and priests and celebrate festivals.
(iv) Pilgrims visited the temples and made donations.
(v) Temple authorities invested the wealth in trade and banking.
(vi) Gradually, a large number of priests, workers, artisans and traders settled near the temple to cater to its needs and those of the pilgrims. Thus grew temple towns.
Yes, the NCERT book has been designed keeping in mind the pattern of paper that will be presented in the exam to students. The NCERT book is sufficient to study for the exam as it has everything related to the exam and contains all information out of which the questions will be asked in the exam. But if you want to prepare a little bit extra, we suggest that you go through the NCERT class 7 solutions.
When you are studying the NCERT book for math and other subjects for your class 7 exams, refer to the NCERT class 7 solutions simultaneously so you can see where you are going wrong and what are you getting right in your exercises’ attempt.
The class 7th is very crucial as it is among the major middle school classes during which the child’s base is formed in math and science and even in other subjects like English. Thus, it is students must study smartly in this class and ace their exams while getting all the help they need from the NCERT 7 solutions given by Extramarks.
Yes, absolutely. The NCERT solutions provided by Extramarks for class 7 are eloquent and elaborate at best and are thus useful for students studying for the final exams of class 7. The students will have many questions and doubts regarding the NCERT solutions for class 7 and this is why the solutions have been elaborated well to help students understand the answers to exercises.
Yes, the NCERT solutions for Math and other subjects for class 7 are available for free from Extramarks.