NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 4 Structure of The Atom

Q:

Number of valence electrons in Cl ion are:
(a) 16
(b) 8
(c) 17
(d) 18

A:

8

Q:

Isotopes of an element have
(a) the same physical properties
(b) different chemical properties
(c) different number of neutrons
(d) different atomic numbers.

A:

Isotopes of an element have different number of neutrons.

Q:

Rutherford’s alpha-particle scattering experiment was responsible for the discovery of (a) Atomic Nucleus (b) Electron (c) Proton (d) Neutron

A:

Atomic nucleus 

Q:

Which one of the following is a correct electronic configuration of sodium? (a) 2,8 (b) 8,2,1 (c) 2,1,8 (d) 2,8,1.

A:

2,8,1

Q:

For the following statements, write T for True and F for False.

(a) J.J. Thomson proposed that the nucleus of an atom contains only nucleons.

(b) A neutron is formed by an electron and a proton combining together. Therefore, it is neutral.

(c) The mass of an electron is about 1/2000 times that of proton.

(d) An isotope of iodine is used for making tincture iodine, which is used as a medicine.

A:

(a) J.J. Thomson proposed that the nucleus of an atom contains only nucleons. (F)

(b) A neutron is formed by an electron and a proton combining together. Therefore, it is neutral. (F)

(c) The mass of an electron is about 1/2000 times that of proton. (T)

(d) An isotope of iodine is used for making tincture iodine, which is used as a medicine. (T)

Q:

Composition of the nuclei of two atomic species X and Y are given as under
X Y
Protons 6 6
Neutrons 6 8

Give the mass numbers of X and Y. What is the relation between the two species?

A:

We know that

Mass number = Number of protons + Number of neutrons

Mass number of X = 6 + 6 = 12

Mass number of Y = 6 + 8 = 14

X and Y have the same atomic number but different mass numbers therefore; X and Y are the Isotopes.

Q:

If Z = 3, what would be the valency of the element? Also, name the element.

A:

Z represents the atomic number of an element. Atomic number 3 is of the element Lithium.

Electronic configuration of Lithium is 2,1. In order to complete its duplet it will lose its valence electron therefore, its valency is 1.

Q:

If bromine atom is available in the form of, say, two isotopes 35Br79 (49.7%) and 35Br81 (50.3%), calculate the average atomic mass of bromine atom.

A:

Q:

Na+ has completely filled K and L shells. Explain.

A:

Atomic number of Sodium (Na) is 11.

Electronic configuration of Sodium (Na) is 2,8,1.

In order to complete its octet it will lose its valence electron and form Sodium ion (Na+).

Electronic configuration of sodium ion (Na+) is 2,8.

In the electronic configuration of sodium ion both K and L shell are completely filled. 

Q:

What are the limitations of J.J. Thomson’s model of the atom?

A:

According to J.J. Thomson’s model of an atom, an atom consists of a positively charged sphere and the electrons are embedded in it. However, later it was found that the positively charged particles are present at the centre of the atom (nucleus) and electrons revolve around the nucleus.

Q:

Define valency by taking examples of silicon and oxygen.

A:

Valency is the number of electrons gained, lost or shared by an atom so as to make the octet of the electrons in the outermost shell.

For example,

  1. Atomic number of Silicon is 14.

Electronic configuration of Silicon is 2,8,4.

Since the number of valence electrons is 4 therefore, valency of Silicon is 4.

  1. Atomic number of Oxygen is 8.

Electronic configuration of Oxygen is 2,6.

Since the number of valence electrons is more than 4 therefore, valency of Oxygen is 8 – 6 i.e., 2.

Q:

What are the limitations of Rutherford’s model of the atom?

A:

The limitations of Rutherford’s model of the atom are:

  • According to the electromagnetic theory, if a charged particle moves around another charged particle, it accelerates and continuously loses energy in the form of the radiant energy. Loss of energy would slow down the speed of the electron and eventually, the electron would fall into the nucleus. However, such a collapse did not occur and Rutherford's model was unable to explain the reason behind it.
  • It does not say anything about the distribution of electrons around the nucleus and the energy of electrons.

Q:

Compare the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons.

A:

Electron

Proton

Neutron

They are present outside the nucleus.

They are present in the nucleus.

They are present in the nucleus.

They are negatively charged.

They are positively charged.

They are neutral.

They are represented as e.

They are represented as p+.

They are represented as n0.

Q:

Complete the following table.
Atomic number Mass number Number of neutrons Number of protons Number of electrons Name of the atomic species
9 10
16 32 Sulphur
24 12
2 1
1 0 1 0

A:

Atomic number

Mass number

Number of neutrons

Number of protons

Number of electrons

Name of the atomic species

         9

        19

            10

            9

             9

               Fluorine

        16

        32

            16

          16

            16

              Sulphur

        12

       24

           12

          12

             12

           Magnesium

         1

        2

            1

           1

              1

            Deuterium

         1

        1

            0

           1

              0

            Protium

Q:

The average atomic mass of a sample of an element X is 16.2 u. What are the percentages of isotopes 16/8X and 18/8 X in the sample?

A:

Q:

Explain with examples
(i) Atomic number, (ii) Mass number, (iii) Isotopes and (iv) Isobars. Give any two uses of isotopes.

A:

(i) Atomic number:

  • It represents the total number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom.
  • It is denoted by Z.
  • All the atoms of an element have the same atomic number.
  • The number of electrons and protons in an atom are equal.

For example,

Atomic number of Boron is 5

Atomic number of Aluminium is 13

Atomic number of Argon is 18

(ii) Mass number:

  • It represents the total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom.
  • It is denoted by A.
  • The mass of an atom is due to the protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom.
  • Protons and neutrons are collectively called the nucleons.

For example,

Mass number of Boron is 11

Mass number of Aluminium is 27

Mass number of Argon is 40

(iii) Isotopes:

  • These are the atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different mass number.
  • Isotopes of a particular element have the same chemical properties but different physical properties.

For example,

Carbon has three isotopes 12C, 13C, 14C

Boron has two isotopes 10B, 11B

(iv) Isobars:

  • These are the atoms that have the same mass numbers but different atomic numbers.
  • Isobars have different chemical as well as physical properties.

For example,

Ar40, 19K40, 20Ca40

C14, 7N14

Uses of Isotopes

  1. An isotope of uranium is used as fuel in the nuclear reactor.
  2. An isotope of cobalt is used in the treatment of cancer.

Q:

Summarise the rules for writing of distribution of electrons in various shells for the first eighteen elements.

A:

The rules for distributing the electrons in various shells are given below.

1.The maximum number of electrons present in a shell (n) is given by the formula 2n2, where ‘n’ is an integer.

For example,

Maximum number of electrons in K shell is 2(1)2 = 2 electrons

Maximum number of electrons in L shell is 2(2)2 = 8 electrons

2.The maximum number of electrons in the outermost orbit of an atom is 8.

For example,

Total number of electrons 13

Expected distribution is 2,11 but actual distribution is 2,8,3

3.Electrons are not accommodated in a given shell, unless the inner shells are filled, i.e., shells are filled in a step-wise manner.

For example,

In order to accommodate 13 electrons in K, L and M shell, the correct distribution is 2,8,3 and not 2,7,4.

Q:

Compare all the proposed models of an atom given in this chapter.

A:

Thomson’s Model

Rutherford’s Model

Bohr’s Model

  1. An atom consists of a positively charged sphere and the electrons are embedded in it.

 

  1. There is a positively charged centre in the atom, which is called the nucleus. Almost the whole mass of an atom resides in the nucleus.
  1. The electrons revolve around the nucleus in well-defined orbits.
  1. The size of a nucleus is very small as compared to the size of an atom.
  1. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in certain discrete orbits (energy levels) without losing any energy.
  2. An electron present in a particular orbit possesses a definite amount of energy.
  3. An electron does not radiate energy (lose energy) even though it accelerates the motion around the nucleus.

 

Q:

Describe Bohr’s model of the atom.

A:

  1. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in certain discrete orbits (energy levels) without losing any energy.
  2. An electron present in a particular orbit possesses a definite amount of energy.
  3. An electron does not radiate energy (lose energy) even though it accelerates the motion around the nucleus.

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