NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Contemporary India Chapter 3 Drainage


Why are rivers important for the country’s economy?


The rivers are important in country's economy because of the following reasons:

  • Most of the ancient human civilizations originated, flourished and developed in the river valleys.
  • They carry water containing sediments and minerals, which are very useful for agriculture.
  • They provide water for various human activities like domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes.
  • Rivers provide cheap and efficient inland transport for trade and commerce.
  • They are used in generating hydroelectricity.
  • They also provide water to reservoirs, which are used for fishing and recreational activities.


Compare the east flowing and the west flowing rivers of the Peninsular plateau.


The East Flowing Peninsular Rivers

The West Flowing Peninsular Rivers

They drain into the Bay of Bengal.

They drain into the Arabian Sea.

They cover a longer distance.

They cover a shorter distance.

They form deltas.

They form estuaries.

For example, the Kaveri, the Godavari, etc.

For example, the Narmada and the Tapi.


On an outline map of India mark and label the following lakes: Chilika, Sambhar, Wular, Pulicat, Kolleru.



On an outline map of India mark and label the following rivers: Ganga, Satluj, Damodar, Krishna, Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, and Brahmaputra.



Discuss the significant difference between the Himalayan and the Peninsular Rivers.


The Himalayan Rivers

The Peninsular Rivers

They are snowfed.

They are rainfed.

They rise from the Himalayas.

They originate in the Western Ghats.

They are long distant rivers.

They are short distant rivers.

They are perennial rivers.

They are seasonal rivers.

They have large basins.

They have small basins.

For example: Ganga, Yamuna, Indus, Brahamputra, etc.

For example: Krishna, Kaveri, Godavari, Mahanadi, etc.


Below are given the names of a few lakes of India. Group them under two categories– natural and created by human beings.
(a) Wular
(b) Dal
(c) Nainital
(d) Bhimtal
(e) Gobind Sagar
(f) Loktak
(g) Barapani
(h) Chilika
(i) Sambhar
(j) Rana Pratap Sagar
(k) Nizam Sagar
(l) Pulicat
(m) Nagarjuna Sagar
(n) Hirakund


Natural lakes: (a) Wular (b) Dal (c) Nainital (d) Bhimtal (f) Loktak (g) Barapani (h) Chilka (i) Sambhar (l) Pulicat.

Man-made lakes: (e) Gobind Sagar (j) Rana Partap Sagar (l) Nizam Sagar (n) Nagarjuna Sagar (n) Hira Kund.


Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What is meant by a water divide? Give an example.
(ii) Which is the largest river basin in India?
(iii) Where do the rivers Indus and Ganga have their origin?
(iv) Name the two headstreams of the Ganga. Where do they meet to form the Ganga?
(v) Why does the Brahmaputra in its Tibetan part have less silt, despite a longer course?
(vi) Which two Peninsular rivers flow through trough?
(vii) State some economic benefits of rivers and lakes.


(i) An elevated area such as a mountain or an upland that separates two drainage basins is known as a water divide. The Western Ghats is the best example of the water divide.
(ii) The Ganga river basin is the largest river basin in India.
(iii) The Indus River has its origin in Tibet near the Mansarovar Lake while the Ganga River has its origin in Gangotri Glacier in Uttarakhand.
(iv) The two headstreams of the Ganga are the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda. They meet at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand to form the Ganga.
(v) The Brahmaputra River in Tibet receives a very little volume of water in so it carries little silt there. However, once it enters India, Brahmaputra is fed by heavy rains, and it carries a lot of water and silt.
(vi) The two rivers that flow through troughs are the Narmada and the Tapi. These are the west-flowing rivers, which form estuaries while entering the Arabian Sea.
(vii) Some economic benefits of rivers and lakes are:
a. Lakes and rivers are used to produce hydroelectricity.
b. They are useful for navigation.
c. They are beneficial for fisheries.
d. They are useful for irrigation.
e. Many ancient human settlements are established near the lakes and rivers. For example, Bhopal in India is a lake city while Indo-Gangetic Plains are known for their ancient civilization.
f. They are tourist destinations.


Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) In which of the following states is the Wular lake located?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Punjab
(d) Jammu and Kashmir

(ii) The river Narmada has its source at
(a) Satpura
(b) Brahmagiri
(c) Amarkantak
(d) Slopes of the Western Ghats

(iii) Which one of the following lakes is a saltwater lake?
(a) Sambhar
(b) Dal
(c) Wular
(d) Gobind Sagar

(iv) Which one of the following is the longest river of the Peninsular India?
(a) Narmada
(b) Krishna
(c) Godavari
(d) Mahanadi

(v) Which one amongst the following rivers flows through a rift valley?
(a) Mahanadi
(b) Tungabhadra
(c) Krishna
(d) Tapi


(i) (d) Jammu and Kashmir
(ii) (c) Amarkantak
(iii) (a) Sambhar
(iv) (c) Godavari
(v) (d) Tapi

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