NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Contemporary India Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Q:

On an outline map of India, label the following. (i) Areas of Evergreen Forests (ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests (iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country

A:

Q:

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below: (i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to? (a) Tundra (b) Tidal (c) Himalayan (d) Tropical Evergreen (ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than (a) 100 cm (b) 50 cm (c) 70 cm (d) less than 50 cm (iii) In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located? (a) Punjab (b) Delhi (c) Odisha (d) West Bengal (iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve? (a) Manas (b) Nilgiri (c) Gulf of Mannar (d) Nanda Devi

A:

 (i) (d) Tropical Evergreen

(ii) (a) 100 cm

(iii) (c) Odisha

(iv) (a) Manas

Q:

Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?

A:

India is rich in its fauna. It is because India has a variety of relief features, soils and climatic conditions. It influences the flora and fauna of the place. It has approximately 90,000 animal species. The country has about 2,000 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals.

Map Skills

On an outline map of India, label the following.

(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests

(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests

(iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country

Q:

Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?

A:

Excessive exploitation of the plants and animal resources by human beings has disturbed the ecosystem. About 1,300 plant species are endangered and 20 species are extinct. The main causes of this major threat to nature are

  1. Hunting of animals for commercial purposes
  2. Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits
  3. Introduction of alien species
  4. Reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation are also responsible for the imbalance

Q:

Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.

A:

The major types of vegetation found in India are:

(i) Tropical Evergreen Forests

(ii) Tropical Deciduous Forests

(iii) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs

(iv) Montane Forests

(v) Mangrove Forests

The Montane forests are found in the high altitude. Their characteristic features are:

  1. The wet temperate type of forests is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. They have evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominately.
  2. Temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found between 1500 and 3000 metres.
  3. These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas, places having high altitude in southern and north-east India.
  4. Temperate grasslands are common at higher elevations.
  5. The Alpine vegetation is generally found at the altitudes more than 3,600 metres above sea-level.
  6. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
  7. These grasslands are used extensively for grazing by nomadic tribes like the Gujjars and the Bakarwals.
  8. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation.

Q:

Distinguish between (i) Flora and Fauna (ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests

A:

(i)

Flora

Fauna

The natural occurring plant life in a particular region or time is called flora.

The indigenous animal life of a particular region is called fauna.

For example, Rubber trees are native to the Equatorial region.

For example, Polar Bear is a native animal of the Polar region.

(ii)

Tropical Evergreen

Deciduous forests

  1. They remain green throughout the year.
  1. They shed their leaves in dry season to avoid transpiration.
  1. Grown well in the areas having more than 200 cm of rainfall with a short the dry season
  1. Spread over the region receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm
  1. Are found in the heavy rainfall areas of the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast.
  1. Are found in the northeastern states, along the foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.
  1. The commercially important trees are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona.
  1. Teak is the most dominant species of this forest. Bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry are other commercially important species.

 

Q:

Answer the following questions briefly. (i) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India? (ii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples. (iii) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.

A:

(i)The factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are a relief (land and soil) and climate (temperature, sunlight and precipitation).

(ii)Biosphere Reserves are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over a large area of terrestrial or coastal (marine) ecosystems. It is an ecosystem with plants and animals of unusual scientific and natural interest. For example, Sunderban and Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserves.

(iii)Biosphere Reserves are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over a large area of terrestrial or coastal (marine) ecosystems. It is an ecosystem with plants and animals of unusual scientific and natural interest. For example, Sunderban and Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserves.

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