NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource


Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?


Noida and Gurgoan, near Delhi are regions which initially had not job opportunities but later came up with many. Now people are moving to these places in search of better job opportunity.


How will you explain the term unemployment?


Unemployment is situation in which people are willing to work at the prevailing wage rate but do not find jobs. In India, we can see unemployment in both rural and urban areas.


Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?


Amongst land, labour, physical capital and human capital, I consider human capital is the best capital. Human capital is superior from other resources because it can make use of other resources to produce an output. Human capital processes and develops other capital. Human equipped with education and better health care facilities convert resources or make things which have usability. The other capital resources cannot become useful on their own.


Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?


In urban areas educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon. Many youths with proper schooling, graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find jobs.

The reasons for educated unemployment are as follows:

1. Employment opportunities in India have not increased at the same rate as population is increasing.

2. Educated people want only a certain kind of jobs. They prefer to stay without job rather than accepting a low standard job or the job which does not suit their academic courses.

3. Educated unemployed is not ready to work in rural areas and thereby remain unemployed in urban areas.

Thus, we see that India has many educated unemployed.


Why are women employed in low paid work?


The following reasons explained why women are employed in low paid jobs:

1. Historically women in India are less educated than men. They get less education and low skills and hence employed in less paid jobs.

2. Women normally work in unorganised sectors because of lack of knowledge and information which offer less income.

3. Women are generally unaware of their legal rights and are get exploited easily by the employers in terms of wages.


What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?


On the basis of type of occupation, economic activities are divided into three sectors, i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary. The activities included in different sectors are as follows:
• Primary sector includes activities like agriculture, forestry, fishing, poultry farming, mining etc.
• Secondary sector includes construction, quarrying and manufacturing along with all types of industries.
• Tertiary sector includes trade, transport, communication, banking, education, tourism etc.


What part does health play in the individual’s working life?


A good health is imperative for a good life. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential or capabilities and the ability to fight illness. A healthy person efficiently utilises his time and effort. His approach in his working life is more focused and concentrated. As a result his productivity increases in terms of both quality and quantity.


What is the role of health in human capital formation?


A good health is imperative for a good life. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential or capabilities and the ability to fight illness. A child, with investment made on her health can yield high return in the future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to society. He works efficiently and helps other in realising their potential like teacher helps students in realising their potential. By working efficiently, teachers make good engineers who further contribute in the human capital formation. An educated and unhealthy population cannot realise its potential. An unhealthy person becomes liability because he/she is dependent on working age group for their survival. Thus, health is indispensable for human capital formation along with education.


How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?


Human resource is superior from other resources like land and capital because only human can make use of other resources to produce an output. They processes and develops them. Human equipped with education and better health care facilities convert or make things which have usability. The other resources cannot become useful on their own.


What do you understand by 'people as a resource'?


‘People as Resource' is a way of indicating country’s working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. It refers to the productive aspects of the population that contribute to the Gross Domestic Product.


Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?


The problem of educated unemployment can be solved by following steps:

  1. More technical education should be given to student so that they will get job immediately after completion of course. Courses should be career oriented.
  2. Education should be vocational. Vocational education should be provided along with curriculum of graduation that enhances the productivity of students for e.g. beautician course can be taught to interested students.
  3. Education should encourage people to become self reliant and enterprising. It should open new avenues for them. Education needs to be planned properly and executed with great sensitivity.



In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?


In India the tertiary sector or the service sector may have the maximum potential for new employment. Various new services are now appearing in the information technology sector, bio-technology sector etc. Communication services are spreading to the rural area and there is lot of scope for employment. People are becoming more health conscious. They are employed as dieticians, physio-therapists, trainers, sport experts etc.

In recent years maximum employment opportunities have increased in the BPO or call centers. This has been a boon for moderately educated young people.

India is soon going to become a big destination for the world because of its relatively reasonable and accurate surgical procedures. There is a lot of scope in the tourist and hospitality sector in India.


What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?


Seasonal unemployment

Disguised unemployment

It means when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year.

It means when people appear to be employed but they are not adding to the productivity.

For example, farmers in certain seasons like at the time of sowing, harvesting, weeding, threshing they are employed and in remaining months they remain unemployed.


For example, suppose a work requires the services of five people but engages eight people. Here, three people are extra. If three people are removed from the work, the total produce will remain unaffected. The three extra people are called as disguised unemployment.


What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?


Economic activities

Non-economic activities

The activities which add value to the national income are called economic activities.

Activities which are performed to produce for self consumption are referred to as non-economic activities.

These activities results in production of goods and services and are performed to earn profit.

These activities are not performed for monetary gains.

For example: When a woman is working as a chef in a hotel, she gets payment for it.

For example: When she cooks food for her family at her home, she is not paid for that.


What is the role of education in human capital formation?


When the existing human resource is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, it is known as human capital formation. So for the formation of human capital it is imperative to spend on education.

A child, with investment made on his/her education and training, can yield high return in future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to the society. In the same pursuits country can turn human resources like students into human capital like engineers and doctors or teachers.

Education opens the doors for a good job and salary. Education enhances the quality and quantity of labour’s productivity which can contributes towards the growth of society also. Since educated persons have realised the importance of education, they are found to invest more heavily on the education of their children.

The advantages of an educated population spread to whole society.

Benefits of NCERT Solutions

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1. They are developed by our experts with the right approach for precisely answering the textbook questions.

2. They are free of cost and available online to help class 9 students.

3. They not only explain every topic but also prepare students for further examinations. 

4. They are proven to be helpful to students in their exam preparation, homework and competitive exams.

5. They will help in understanding the solutions and the methodology of writing the answers in the exams.

Tips & Strategies for Class 9 Exam Preparation

1. Jot down important chapters or topics for your exam preparation.

2. Learn from the best teachers with Extramarks and clear your doubts instantly.

3. While practicing, refer to NCERT Solutions for class 9 to understand step-by-step solutions to all questions.

4. Solve as many sample papers as you can to prepare well for the exams.

5. Lastly, don’t panic. Try to meditate at least for 15 minutes every day- it will help you retain things better.

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Frequently Asked Questions

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