NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Contemporary India Chapter 6 Population


What are the advantages of having a healthy population?


Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. The advantages of a healthy population are:

  1. A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual.
  2. He or she is able to realise his or her potential and play an important role in social and national development.
  3. A healthy person is an asset to the nation as it is more productive and helps the nation to make progress.
  4. It is able to earn more and can improve its standard of living.


What is the relation between occupational structure and development?


The percentage of the population that is economically active is an important index of development. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities like banking, commerce, transport and administration. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities like agriculture, fishing, mining, lumbering, and food gathering.


What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?


The National Population Policy 2000 provides a policy framework of achieving goals and prioritising strategies during the next decade to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the people of India along with the target to achieve the net replacement levels. It aims at a stable population by 2045.

  1. Imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age
  2. Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births
  3. Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases
  4. Providing nutritional services and food supplements to adolescents
  5. The policy also aims at curbing the IMR to less than 30 per 1000 live births.
  6. Protecting adolescents from unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases, and educating them about the risks of unprotected sex
  7. Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable
  8. It also seeks to achieve 100 % registration of births, deaths, marriages and pregnancies.


Distinguish between population growth and population change.


Population growth

Population change

It refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country or territory during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years.

It refers to change in the number of people during a specific time. The world population has not been stable. It has increased manifold.

Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year.

Natural increase, immigration and emigration are the major components causing population change.


Answer the following questions briefly. (i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?


(i) Since 1981, the rate of population growth has been declining as a result of greater use of birth control measures.

(ii) The major components of population growth are Birth Rate, Death Rate and Migration.

  • The Birth rate is a major component of growth because, in India, the birth rate has always been higher than the death rate.
  • Due to improved health facilities, the death rate has been declining in India. High birth rate and declining death rate in 1980 resulted in a higher rate of population growth.
  • Migration changes the size of the population of rural and urban areas. International migration changes the size of the population. Internal migration influences the distribution of population within the nation.      

(iii) Age Structure - The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in that population.

      Birth Rate - The birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.

      Death Rate - The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

(iv) Migration is an important determinant of the population change. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It is a determinant factor of the population change as it changes the size and composition of population of both the areas of departure and arrival. In India, the rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of the population in cities and towns.


Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. (i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) the area of departure (c) both the area of departure and arrival
(b) the area of arrival (d) none of the above (ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates (c) high death rates
(b) high life expectancies (d) more married couples (iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males (iv) According to the Census, a “literate” person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)


(i) (c) both the area of departure and arrival   ✓

(ii) (a) high birth rates  

(iii) (b) the number of persons added each year   ✓

(iv) (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding   ✓

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