NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur

Q:

Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?

A:

The wages for farm labourers in Palampur are lower than the wages for farm labourers set by the government due to intense competition. There is heavy competition among the farmers for work in Palampur, so farmers get ready to work for lower wages.

Q:

On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tajpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?

A:

Savita is a small farmer as she owns 1 hectare of land. She decides to cultivate wheat. As she does not have money, she decides to borrow from Tejpal, a large farmer. On the following terms she got money from Tejpal Singh:

Savita borrowed money at an interest rate of 24 % for four months, which is a hefty interest rate.

She promised to work on Tejpal’s Singh field as a farm labourer during harvest season at Rs 35 per day. This wage is quite low as compared to minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government i.e. Rs 115.

Banks, self-help groups and cooperatives charge very low interest rates as compared to the interest rate charged by Tejpal Singh, a money lender. So, if Savita had taken loan from bank, she would have been paying very low interest rate and she would have not been forced to work as bonded labour. Repayment of loan could have been easier for her and her condition would have been far better.

Q:

How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?

A:

Medium and large farmers use their own savings to obtain capital for farming. They have accumulated this savings from farming.

In contrast to the medium and large farmers, small farmers borrow money from large farmers or village money lenders or traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. With this borrowing small farmers arrange capital for farming. They pay hefty interest on such borrowings. Sometime, they face difficult situations to repay loan.

Q:

Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.

A:

A farmer who owns 1 hectare of land for farming is called as subsistence farmer. The size of 1 hectare of land is very less and not suitable for the cultivation with modern equipments. On this land, farmer practices traditional methods of agriculture. Since the size of land is small and the application of new methods of irrigation, use of insecticides, pesticides, is limited. With this production farmer may not be able to manage his family in the whole year. For the survival of his family, he has to work on rich farmer’s field or has to do some other work. He may also have to take loan to buy inputs for cultivation and pay hefty interest rates. For the repayment of loan he may be put to distress.

Q:

What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use example to explain.

A:

The following ways can be followed to increase production on the same piece of land:

  • Multiple Cropping: To grow more than one crop on the same piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. It is the most common way to increase production. For example, farmers in Palampur grow at least two crops and many farmers also grow third crop every year from past fifteen to twenty years.
  • Adoption of modern methods: By adopting modern agricultural methods like use of HYV seeds, farmers can increase their production. They can use insecticide, pesticide, tubewells, etc. to increase yield per acre. For example farmers of Punjab, Haryana, Western UP, are increasingly adopting these methods.

Q:

In your region, talk to two labourers. Choose either farm labourers or labourers working at construction sites. What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind? Do they get work regularly? Are they in debt?

A:

In our region, I talked to two labourers named Rama and Krishna. They are brothers. They are working on constructional sites.

They get ` 300 daily which is paid in cash and lunch in the afternoon which is in kind.

They do not get work regularly because after the completion of one project they have to find another option. Secondly, there is huge competition in getting work. When they are not able to compete, they remain unemployed.

They are in debt because they had borrowed money from money lender for construction of their house in their home town. Since, they do not have regular source of earnings, they have to borrow to meet their daily expenses.

Q:

Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.

A:

Families

Distribution of Land

150 Families

 Own no land for cultivation

240 Families

 Own small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size

60 Families

 Own large plots of land more than 2 hectares in size or for few families land holding is extending over 10  hectares

Q:

Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?

A:

Yes, it is important to increase the area under irrigation for the following reasons:

  • Population is increasing and thereby the need to increase food production is imperative. But there is constraint to increase land under cultivation, thus the only alternative to increase productivity is to increase area under irrigation.
  • Rainfall is unevenly distributed and in India most of the farmers depend on monsoon for agriculture. It shows if India receives less rainfall, then production will be low.
  • Overtime farmers are adopting modern methods of agriculture like using HYV seeds, multiple cropping, crop rotations, etc. that command good irrigational facilities.

Q:

How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur?

A:

Electricity reached early to Palampur which transformed the life of farmers of Palampur in following manners:

  • Earlier farmers were using Persian wheels to draw water from wells and irrigate field. With the advent of electric run tube-wells farmers can irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively and efficiently.
  • Farmers were dependent on rainfall for agricultural activities, now with the advent of electric run irrigational equipments farmers can grow two crops on a piece of land during a year.
  • It also helped farmers in setting up small businesses where the machines run on electricity.

Q:

Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?

A:

Yes, I agree that modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. For example:

  • Modern farming methods require HYV seeds, insecticides, pesticides, chemical fertilisers in huge quantity which are produced in industries.
  • For ploughing and harvesting, farmers are using tractors and threshers which are manufactured in industries.
  • For irrigational purposes farmers use electric-run tube-well equipments and water pumps that also are manufactured in industries.

Q:

What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?

A:

The following methods can be done to start more non-farm production activities in villages:

  • Institutional loans at low interest rates should be provided to villagers to start non-farm activities like for opening a new shop. Borrowing procedure should be made borrower friendly.
  • Government should provide education and trainings facilities to villagers. These will act as foundation for new set ups for e.g. training for setting up computer training institutes.  
  • Good marketing channels can be developed in villages. These channels help in marketing handicrafts, artisans work, etc.
  • Basic infrastructure like road, electricity, communication, commutation facilities needs to be improved.
  • Industries should be invited in villages to create employment opportunities.  

Q:

What are the non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Make a short list.

A:

Following non-farming activities are taking place in our region:

(1) Dairying: Dairying is a common activity in our region. People have opened dairy and indulge in sales and purchase of dairy products.

(2) Small scale manufacturing: Most of the people are engaged in manufacturing. Manufacturing in our region involves very simple production methods or modern production methods. Small production methods are being practiced on a small scale. It is done with the help of family members or hired. It is generally carried at home or at small manufacturing unit. Modern production methods are found at few places in our region.

(3) Trading: People are involved in trading. The traders in our region are shopkeepers who buy various goods from the wholesale markets located in cities and sell them in our area. There are small general stores in the village selling a wide range of items like rice, wheat, sugar, tea, oil, biscuits, soaps etc. Few families whose houses are close to the bus stand are using a part of space to open small shops.

(4) Other activities: People are indulged as medical professionals, lawyers, rickshaw pullers, teachers, government employees, etc.

Q:

Talk to some old residents in your region and write a short report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years. (Optional)

A:

After having word with two old residents Sitaraman and Harvinder Singh in our region, I came to know that there is huge change in irrigation and production methods.

They told us, earlier Persian wheels were used to draw water from wells but now with the advent of electric run tube-wells, farmers can irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively and efficiently.

In farming, traditional methods like ox plough, wooden threshers, were used for ploughing and threshing respectively. These methods were time consuming and difficult.

Earlier farmers were using ordinary seeds, cow dung and leaves manure. Now the farmers are using HYV seeds, insecticide, pesticides, etc. which are produced in factory.

Q:

Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Palampur. a. Location: b. Total Area of the Village c. Land use (in hectares)
Cultivated Land Land not available for cultivation (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)
Irrigated Unirrigated
26 hectares
d. Facilities
Educational
Medical
Market
Electricity Supply
Communication
Nearest Town

A:

  1. Location: It is a hypothetical village which resembles a village of the western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 3 kilometers from a big village Raiganj. Also, the nearest town is Shahpur.
  2. Total Area of the Village: 226 hectares
  3. Land use (in hectares):

Cultivated Land

Land not available for cultivation (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)

Irrigated

Unirrigated

200 hectares

0

26 hectares

  1. Facilities

Educational

2 primary schools and 1 high school

Medical

1 primary health center run by government and 1 private dispensary

Market

Raiganj and Shahpur

Electricity Supply

Most of the houses have electric connections. Electricity is being used in fields for irrigation and in small businesses.

Communication

An all weather road connects Palampur to Raiganj and Shahpur. Different kinds of transport are commuting on this road like bullock carts, tongas, bogeys, motorcycles, jeeps, tractors, trucks, etc.

Nearest Town

Shahpur

 

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