Urban Livelihoods

Our life depends on many other individuals and their skills and services. In our day life, we receive services from drivers, doctors, teachers, hawkers, milkman, vendors and shopkeepers. All these people are employed and being employed gives them a sense of self-worth and meaningful life. People are employed in different sectors of economy – Primary, Secondary and Service sectors. Employment is a source of livelihood. Livelihood means economic activities involving self-employment or wage employment.

In towns, main occupation of people is related to secondary and tertiary sectors. There are others who do traditional works as well as modern jobs (programming work in IT industry). India’s urban population is the second largest in the world. Urbanisation closely related to modernisation and industrialization. According to National Policy for Urban Street vendors/hawkers, street vendors constitute approximately 2% of population of a metropolis. A survey by National Alliance of Street Vendors of India says around 20 percent of their earnings are taken as rent by authorities.

Our economy is divided into Organised and Unorganised Sectors. Daily wage labourers in factories and are employed on casual basis; no job security. Indian labour laws divide industry into two broad categories: factories and shops. Some of Labour laws are: Minimum Wages Act, Industrial Employment Act, Industrial Disputes Act and Payment of Bonus Act. Recognizing the dignity of labour and showing respect for manual labour is important. People who own and operate enterprise to earn their livelihood are known as self-employed. In Regular employment, worker is engaged with an enterprise and gets wages on regular basis.

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