Human Environment Interaction- The Tropical and the Subtropical Region
The tropical region lies on both sides of the equator, i.e., between the latitudes 10°N and 10°S. The Amazon rainforests lie in this zone in South America. These rainforests are the largest in the world, covering about 5.5 million sq km. They play an important role in regulating the global weather. The Amazon Rainforests have more species of animals than any other terrestrial ecosystem. These forests are very sparsely populated. The Amazon forms the largest river basin in the world. A river basin or the catchment area is the portion of land drained by a river and its tributaries. Countries lying in the Amazon Basin are Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. People living here obtain their food by hunting, gathering, fishing and cultivating.
The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin in the Indian subcontinent lies in the sub-tropical region that is situated between 10°N to 30°N latitudes. This basin drains 1.7 million sq km of area in China, Nepal, India and Bangladesh. The basin experiences monsoon type of climate. It experiences rain from mid-June to mid-September. The summers are hot and winters are cool. This basin has a varied topography. The environment plays an important role in the distribution of population here. Paddy is the prime agricultural crop of this basin. Terrace cultivation is practised on uneven lands in this region. In this method of cultivation, land is prepared into multiple terraces, which look like steps. It is often used for crops which require a lot of water like rice. Soil is conserved by this method. A rich variety of fauna is present in the basin. The commonly found animals are elephant, monkeys, tigers, deer, etc.