The Mughal Empire

Babur established the Mughal Empire in India. Humayun got the throne but was not able to maintain such a vast empire. Akbar added the most territory to the empire and is regarded as the most illustrious ruler of the Mughal Dynasty. He also established good relations with Rajputs and gave them strong administrative offices.

Mughal succession struggles were often very violent. Family disputes resulted in open war for succession. Mughals maintained a working relationship with other rulers who were willing to accept their authority, but fought against rebels and challengers of authority and defeated them. They entered into matrimonial alliances with Rajput families and offered high offices to Rajputs in administration. Mughal rulers enrolled chiefs of different groups, to govern their groups, as ‘Mansabdars’. It was mandatory for Mansabdar to maintain a specific number of cavalrymen. Zamindari system ensured a systematic collection of taxes and intelligence related information. Under the land revenue system in Mughal period, peasantry exploitation reached its extreme form. Mughal emperors reinforced power and prestige, which led to the rebellions against their authority.

Shah Jahan, who ascended the throne in 1628 AD, built a new city as his capital – Shahjahanabad. Taj Mahal or the “Crown of Palaces", was built by Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzeb, last of the Great Mughals, faced many revolts from Marathas and Sikhs. From 1698 AD, he personally managed all campaigns in the Deccan. There was conflict amongst his sons after his death.

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