CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus

CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Political Science Term (1 & 2) 2023-24

Political science mainly teaches students the theory and practice of government and politics from local levels to the global level. So, the subject requires your attention, as you have so many things to learn from the subject. The CBSE students must know the CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus first, to get a clear view of the chapters and topics.

Download Free PDF CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus Term (1 & 2) 2023-24 from Extramarks

Before jumping into the preparation, students must have proper knowledge of the chapters, weightage of marks, and topics in the syllabus. So, Extramarks here has provided the PDF file of the detailed syllabus. Students of Class 11 can download the syllabus from the file given below, and strategize their timetable in accordance with the syllabus.  

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CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus Term (1 & 2) 2023-24

See the following tables to know the chapters of CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus 2023-24 and marks distribution for each chapter

CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Political Science Term 1

Part A: Indian Constitution at Work  
1 Constitution: Constitution: The Philosophy and Making of the Constitution, Fundamental Rights
and Duties, Directive Principles of State Policy, Constitutional Amendments.
2 Election and Representation: Elections and Democracy, Election System in India, Electoral Reforms. 10
3 Legislature: Need of Parliament, Unicameral/Bicameral Legislature, Functions, Power And Function Of Parliament, Committees of Parliament, Parliamentary Officials: Speaker, Deputy Speaker, Parliamentary Speaker
4 Executive: What is an executive? Different Types of Parliamentary executives in India, Prime Minister and Council of ministers, Parliamentary executives: Bureaucracy 8
5 Judiciary: Why we need Independent Judiciary, Structure of the Judiciary, Judicial Review, Judicial activism and Overreach
6 Federalism: Definition of Federalism, Evolution and growth of Indian Federalism, Quasi, Cooperative and Competitive federalism. 10
7 Local Governments: Need of the local Governments, Growth of local Government in India, 73rd and 74th amendments of constitution,  Role and challenges of local Government

CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Political Science Term 2

Total  40
Part B Political Theory  
8 Political Theory: An Introduction 04
9 Liberty: Liberty Vs Freedom, Positive and negative liberty 10
10 Equality: definition of Equality, Significance of Equality, Various dimensions of Equality, How can we improve equality
11 Justice:

What is Justice, Dimensions of Justice, and Distributive Justice

12 Rights: What are rights? Source of rights, Legal Rights and the State, Different kinds of Rights and Human rights
13 Citizenship: What is citizenship, Citizens  and citizenship, National and Global Citizenship 10
14 Nationalism:  What is nationalism? Nations and nationalism,  Nationalism, Pluralism,and Multiculturalism
   Secularism: What is Secularism? Secular state, The Western and Indian perspective of Secularism. Salient features of Indian secularism  08
Total 40

Project Work for CBSE Class 11 Political Science 

The project work carries 20 marks. Out of these 20 marks, 10 marks are allotted for viva and 10 marks for the project work. The 20 marks for the project will be evaluated jointly by the internal as well as external examiners. Students of Class 11 need to pay enough attention to the project work as it will determine the overall score in the subject.  

Project Work for CBSE Class 11 Political Science Term 1 & 2

Details of Project Work

  1. The project work will carry 20 marks in total. Out of the 20 marks, 20 marks are allotted to viva, and 10 marks for project. The evaluation for 20 marks projects should be assessed by both the internal and external examiners. 
  2. The project work can be completed by individuals, groups or by a pair. The project can be made on the topic in the given syllabus of the particular class.
  3. The suggested list of activities for the project work of Class 11 students are Role play, Skit, Presentation, Model, field survey Mock drills, and Mock events.
  4. The teachers should give enough time to students to help them complete their project work with the proper understanding of what they are doing. The topics for the project work must be discussed in the class between teachers and the students.
  5. Project work will evaluate if  students have understood the topics. So, students are advised to study the subject properly to score well in the project work. 

Prescribed books for the Class 11 Political Science Project Work 

  1. Indian Constitution at Work, Class 11 published by NCERT
  2. Political Theory, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  3. Reference Material available with the document


Students should follow their NCERT Books first before going to the other study materials. Besides the study material, one thing that students of Class 11 should always carry is a detailed copy of the CBSE syllabus. Students must keep the up-to-date syllabus of every subject. Extramarks has provided the latest syllabus of all subjects on the website. 

Benefits of knowing the CBSE Class 11 Political Science Syllabus

The benefits of studying Political Science are many. It helps students enlighten themselves with the theories and concepts of the subject. At the same time, the subject prepares students for being a part of the larger political scenario. So, it is always beneficial for the students to study and understand the concept of Political Science.

Let’s understand the benefits of studying Class 11 Political Science for the year 2023-24.

  • Political science establishes the framework of Political science and simplifies its concepts through the study materials
  • It helps students gain knowledge about world politics and influences a student’s interpersonal relationship and interaction with others, helps them to become an aware citizen of statistical analysis.
  • It provides students with information about the course’s composition, the objective of learning Political Science, and the probable outcome of the subject.
  • The syllabus helps students build the foundation of political knowledge as well as prepare students for the exam.
  • It helps you to build a political mindset that helps you judge a matter politically
  • Students who are interested to know the Indian constitution and laws can learn much information about it. They would also be able to learn things about human rights and take part in the discussion on world politics, and build a career around it.

POLITICAL SCIENCE (Code No. 028) (2022-23)


At the senior secondary level, students who opt for Political Science are given an opportunity to get exposed to the diverse concepts of the discipline helping them to be a global citizen and develop skills to understand, apply and evaluate. At this level, there is a need to enable students to have the skills to engage with political processes that surround them and provide them with an understanding of the historical context that has shaped the present. The different courses expose the students to various streams of the discipline of Political Science: Political Theory, Indian Politics and International Politics. Concerns of the other two streams – Comparative Politics and Public Administration- are accommodated at different places in these courses. In introducing these streams, special care has been taken not to burden the students with the current jargon of the discipline. The basic idea here is to lay the foundations for a serious engagement with the discipline and develop competencies related to Political Science to prepare them for higher education, learning and knowledge.

Competencies and Outcomes:

  1. Indian Constitution at Work:
    • Competency: Understanding, identifying and analyzing the key features, historical processes and working of the Constitution of India.
    • Outcomes: The students will:
      • Understand the historical processes and the circumstances in which the Constitution was
      • Be familiar with the diverse perspectives that guided the makers of the Indian
      • Identify key features of the Constitution and compare these to other constitutions in the
      • Analyse the working of the Constitution in real life.

2. Political Theory:

  • Competency: Understanding, critically evaluating and applying political theory
  • Outcomes: After the course the students will:
    • Understand different themes and thinkers associated with the real
    • Develop the skills for logical reasoning
    • Meaningfully participate in the issues and concerns of political life surrounding

3. Contemporary World Politics:

  • Competency: Understanding, analyzing the Contemporary World Politics
  • Outcomes: After the course the students will:
    • Understand the contemporary
    • Understand the key political events and processes in the post-cold war
    • Analyze various global institutions, processes and events shaping their

4. Politics in India after Independence:

  • Competency: Critically evaluate and understand, analyze politics in India after Independence
  • Outcomes: After the course the students will:
    • Understand and analyze constitutional institutions, figures and their working in the post- independence period; political events, trends, other facts and figures and contribution of eminent personalities from the post-independence to contemporary
    • Develop their capacity to link political policies and processes with contemporary
    • Encourage the students to understand and analyse the challenges for contemporary India.


Class XI (2022-23)

Total Marks = 100(80+20)

  1. Theory Max Marks: 80

Time: 3 hrs.

Part A: Indian Constitution at Work

Units Contents Marks
1 Constitution 12
2 Election and Representation  


3 The Legislature
4 The Executive  


5 The Judiciary
6 Federalism  


7 Local Governments
Total 40

Part B: Political Theory

Units Contents Marks
8 Political Theory: An Introduction 04
9 Liberty  


10 Equality
11 Justice  


12 Rights
13 Citizenship  


14 Nationalism
15 Secularism 08
Total 40
  1. Project Work: 20 Marks

Grand Total = 100 Marks


Part A: Indian Constitution at Work

  1. Constitution 28 Periods

Constitution: Why and How, The Making of the Constitution, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles of State Policy, constitutional Amendments.

2. Election and Representation 12 Periods

Elections and Democracy, Election System in India, Electoral Reforms.

3. Legislature 16 Periods

Why do we need a Parliament? Unicameral / Bicameral Legislature. Functions and Power of the Parliament, Parliamentary committees. Parliamentary Officials: Speaker, Deputy Speaker, Parliamentary Secretary.

4. Executive 16 Periods

What is an Executive? Different Types of Executive. Parliamentary Executive in India, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers. Permanent Executive: Bureaucracy.

5. Judiciary 16 Periods

Why do we need an Independent Judiciary? Structure of the Judiciary, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism, Judicial Over-reach.

6. Federalism 14 Periods

What is Federalism? Evolution & Growth of the Indian Federalism: Quasi Federalism, Cooperative Federalism & Competitive Federalism.

7. Local Governments 12 Periods

Why do we need Local Governments? Growth of Local Government in India, 73rd and 74th Amendments, Working and Challenges of Local Governments.

Part B: Political Theory

  1. Political Theory: An Introduction 08 Periods

What is Politics? Politics V/s Political Theory, Importance of Political Theory.

9. Liberty 12 Periods

Liberty V.s Freedom, Negative and Positive Liberty.

10. Equality 12 Periods

What is Equality? Significance of Equality. Various dimensions of Equality. How can we promote Equality?

11. Justice 14 Periods

What is Justice? Different dimensions of Justice, Distributive Justice.

12. Rights 14 Periods

What are Rights? Where do Rights come from? Legal Rights and the State. Kinds of Rights. Human Rights.

13. Citizenship 12 Periods

What is citizenship? Citizen and Citizenship, Citizen and Nation, Global Citizenship

14. Nationalism 16 Periods

Nations and Nationalism, Variants of Nationalism, Nationalism, Pluralism and Multiculturalism.

15. Secularism 18 Periods

What is Secularism? What is Secular State? The Western and the Indian perspectives to Secularism. Salient Features of Indian Secularism.

Prescribed Books:

  1. Indian Constitution at work, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  2. Political Theory, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  3. Reference Material available with the document

Note: The above textbooks are also available in Hindi and Urdu versions.

Question Paper Design (2022-23) POLITICAL SCIENCE (CODE NO. 028)


TIME: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80

S.No. Competencies
1 Demonstrative Knowledge + Understanding (Knowledge based simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles or theories, identify, define, or recite, information) (Comprehension – to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information)
2 Knowledge / Conceptual Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations; use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example or solve a problem)
3 Formulation Analysis, Evaluation and Creativity Analysis & Synthesis- classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources; includes map interpretation

Project Work: 20 Marks


Class XII (2022-23)

Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 80

Part A: Contemporary World Politics

Units Contents Marks
1 The End of Bipolarity 8
2 New Centres of Power  


3 Contemporary South Asia
4 United Nations and its Organizations  


5 Security in Contemporary World
6 Environment and Natural Resources  


7 Globalization
Total 40

Part B: Politics in India since Independence

Units Contents Marks
1 Challenges of Nation-Building  


2 Planned Development
3 India’s Foreign Policy 08
4 Parties and Party System in India  


5 Democratic Resurgence
6 Regional Aspirations  


7 Indian Politics: Recent Trends and Development
Total 40


Part A: Contemporary World Politics
1. The End of Bipolarity

Disintegration of Soviet Union, Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis – Afghanistan, Gulf War, Democratic Politics and Democratization – CIS and the 21st Century

(Arab Spring).


22 Periods

2 New Centres of Power

Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS. Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India, Japan and South Korea.


18 Periods

3 Contemporary South Asia

Conflicts and efforts for Peace Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives.


18 Periods

4 United Nations and its Organizations

Principal Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.


10 Periods

5 Security in Contemporary World

Security: Meaning and Type; Terrorism.

12 Periods
6 Environment and Natural Resources

Environmental Movements, Global Warming and Climate Change, Conservation of Natural Resources.


12 Periods

7 Globalization

Globalization: Meaning, Manifestation and Debates.

12 Periods
Part B: Politics in India since Independence
1 Challenges of Nation-Building

Nation and Nation Building. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States. Nehru’s approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of ‘refugee’ Resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Political conflicts over language. Linguistic

Organisation of States.



16 Periods

2 Planned Development

Changing nature of India’s Economic Development Planning Commission and Five Year Plans, National Development Council, NITI Aayog.


08 Periods

3 India’s Foreign Policy

Principles of Foreign Policy; India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel; India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar; India’s Nuclear Programme.


20 Periods

4 Parties and Party System in India

One Party Dominance, Bi-Party System, Multi-Party Coalition System.



30 Periods

5 Democratic Resurgence

Jaya Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution, Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism, National Emergency, Democratic Upsurges – Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth.

6 Regional Aspirations

Rise of regional parties. Punjab Crisis. The Kashmir Issue, Movements for Autonomy.




36 Periods

7 Indian Politics: Recent Trends and Development

Era of Coalitions, National Front, United Front, United Progressive Alliance (UPA)

– I & II, National Democratic Alliance (NDA) I, II, III & IV, Issues of Development

and Governance.

Prescribed Books:

  1. Contemporary World Politics, Class XII, Published by NCERT
  2. Politics in India since Independence, Class XII, Published by NCERT
  3. Reference Material available with this document.


  • The above textbooks are also available in Hindi and Urdu
S. No. Competencies
1 Demonstrative Knowledge + Understanding (Knowledge based simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles or theories, identify, define, or recite, information) (Comprehension – to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information)
2 Knowledge / Conceptual Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations; use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem)
3 Formulation Analysis, Evaluation and Creativity Analysis & Synthesis- classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources; includes map interpretation

Project Work: 20 Marks

Guidelines for Subject having Project Work: 20 Marks (Political Science)

One Project to be done throughout the session, as per the existing scheme.

1. The objectives of the project work:

Objectives of project work are to enable learners to: acquired during the course of class XI-XII.

lication of critical and creative thinking skills and abilities to produce an independent and extended piece of work

2. Role of the teacher:

The teacher plays a critical role in developing thinking skills of the learners. A teacher should:

ject work of the learner through periodic


in their projects and duly acknowledge the same;

during the research and give appropriate references used in doing the research work.

portance of quoting the source of the information to

ensure authenticity of research work.

3. Steps involved in the conduct of the project:

Students may work upon the following lines as a suggested flow chart:

Choose a Title/Topic

Need of the Study, Objective of the Study Hypothesis

Content -Timeline, Maps, Mind maps, Pictures, etc.

(Organization of Material/Data Present Material/Data)

Analyzing the Material/Data for Conclusion Draw the Relevant Conclusion


4. Expected Checklist for the Project Work:

in the project file

5. Assessment of Project Work:

  • Project Work has broadly the following phases: Synopsis/ Initiation, Data Collection, Data Analysis and Interpretation,
  • The aspects of the project work to be covered by students can be assessed during the academic
  • 20 marks assigned for Project Work can be divided in the following manner:

The teacher will assess the progress of the project work in the following manner:

Month Periodic Work Assessment Rubrics Marks


April -July

Instructions about Project Guidelines, Background reading Discussions on Theme and Selection of the Final Topic,

Initiation/ Synopsis

Introduction, Statement of Purpose/Need and objectives of the study, Hypothesis/Research Question, Review of Literature, Presentation of Evidence, Methodology, Questionnaire,

Data Collection.



August – October

Planning and organization: forming an action plan, feasibility, or baseline study, Updating/modifying the action

plan, Data Collection

Significance and relevance of the topic; challenges encountered while conducting the research. 5


November – January

Content/data analysis and interpretation.


Conclusion, Limitations,

Suggestions, Bibliography, Annexures and overall

Content analysis and its relevance in the current scenario.


Conclusion, Limitations, Bibliography, Annexures and Overall Presentation.




presentation of the project.

January/ February

Final Assessment and VIVA by both Internal and External Examiners External/ Internal Viva based on the project  




6. Suggestive Topics:

Students can choose any topic related to the syllabus.

  • Assessment will be done by external examiner in coordination with internal examiner and the date of Project Assessment will be fixed by CBSE in the month of February/March

7. Viva-Voce

At the end of the stipulated term, each learner will present the research work in the Project File to the External and Internal examiner.

is/her own original




Class XI

Paper I: Indian Constitution at Work

Unit -1: Constitution

Sub-Unit: Constitutional Amendments

As of 2021, there have been total 105 amendments of the Constitution of India. Source :

Unit – 2: Election and Representation Sub-Unit: ‘Electoral Reforms in Indian Politics’

Electoral Reforms in the 21st Century include use of EVM [Electronic Voting Machine], VVPAT [Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail] and NOTA [None of the Above]. Restriction on exit polls, ceiling on election expenditure (Rs.50- 70 Lakhs forthe Lok Sabha election and Rs. 20-28 Lakhs for the Assembly election) and the use electoral bonds in election funding are some of the major reforms initiated by the Election Commission of India that have sought to bring about revolutionary changes in the electoral process and the voter behaviour in contemporary India.

Unit- 5: Judiciary

Sub-Unit: ‘Judicial Over reach’

When judiciary assumes the roles and functions of the legislature and executive, thus diluting the concept of separation of powers, it becomes judicial overreach. Unrestrained activism on the part of judiciary often leads to its overreach.

We all know that Article 142 and judicial review have been put to many constructive uses but some actions like declaring the NJAC (National Judicial Appointment Commission) unconstitutional as it tried to apply checks on judicial power highlight the need for judicial restraints in the exercise of judicial review.

Unit- 6: Federalism

Sub-Unit: ‘Quasi Federalism’, ‘Cooperative Federalism’, ‘Competitive Federalism’

Quasi Federalism: In the context of special features and provisions of Indian federalism we use the phrase, ‘Quasi Federalism’, a concept given by K. C. Wheare. Quasi federalism represents a strong centre with comparatively less strongerunits. Wheare describes the Indian case in its formative phase as a ‘quasi federation – A unitary state with subsidiary federalfeatures rather than a federal state with subsidiary unitary features’.

Cooperative Federalism: Cooperative federalism is the concept which reflects the relationship between the Union and theStates where both come together and resolve the common problems with each other’s cooperation in amicable manner thuscontributing towards the growth of a strong federation. It shows the horizontal relationship between the Union and the Stateswhere none is placed over and above on the other. To ensure this strong relationship between the two, the Indian constitutionhas evolved and incorporated certain instruments and agencies like the Inter-State Councils, Zonal Councils, the 7th Schedule, etc.

Competitive Federalism: Competitive federalism places all states vis a vis the Union on equal and competing footing wherethe best performing states can take the maximum benefits of the resources, services and taxes. It ensures a healthy competition among states leading towards better performance and delivery which constitute important part of governance. The post- liberalisation era reflects the trend of competitive federalism where states are more autonomous, accountable andefficient in their functioning.

Class XI

Paper II: Political Theory

Unit-2: Liberty

Sub-Unit: ‘Liberty vs Freedom’

We hear a lot around us that people appear to use the word liberty and freedom as synonyms of each other. But there are some fundamental differences between these two concepts that must be understood. Liberty comes from the Latin word “libertatem” which means “condition of a freeman”. While freedom come from the English word “freodom” which means “state of free will”. Liberty is power to act and express oneself according to one’s will while freedom is the power to decideone’s action. Freedom is more concrete concept than liberty which is more associated with an individual’s connection withthe state rather than with other individuals and circumstances. State guarantees freedom through the liberty it grants to its citizens.

The difference between these two concepts can briefly be outlined as follows:

Liberty Freedom

  • Condition of a free man State of free will
  • Power to act Power to decide
  • Free to do something Free from something

The common feature between these two concepts is that both remain unconstrained, which means that their realization is free from any constrain. Further, both follow rightful or ethical conformity in terms of their realization.

Unit-4: Justice

Sub-Unit: ‘Different Dimensions of Justice’

Till now we have tried to understand what the term justice means. After considering this, we need to know different dimensions of justice which may help us in establishing a just society. Legal, social, political and economic justice are the key dimensions of justice. Here, we will try to understand these dimensions in some details.

  1. Legal Justice: It is a narrow concept of justice which is associated with the legal system and legal procedure existing in a society. The court of law interprets the law and applies it after hearing the partners involved in a Here, justice is what administered by the court of law and the interpretation of the judge is considered to be an embodiment of justice.
  2. Political Justice: In any democratic society political justice means providing equal political Political justicestands for a free

and fair participation of people in the political sphere. Universal adult franchise is the expressionof political justice. Equality of opportunity in getting elected and in holding public offices, freedom ofexpression and association are important pillars of political justice.

  1. Social Justice: It means to end all types of social inequalities and to provide proper opportunity to every citizen inevery sphere of life, to develop her/his personality to ensure equality of law, prohibition of discrimination, social security, provision of equal political rights, The concept of social justice is based on the belief that all humanbeings are equal and no discrimination should be made on the ground of race, religion, caste, gender and place ofbirth.
  2. Economic Justice: It means to provide equal opportunities to everyone to earn her/his livelihood. It also means to help such people who are not able to work and earn their livelihood. The basic need of every person such as food, cloth, shelter and education should be fulfilled. It stands for by assuring adequate means of livelihood to all,by making provisions for equal pay for equal work, fair distribution of resources, equal economic opportunityto all, etc.

While the concept of political justice is closely linked with the ideal of “liberty”, economic and legal justice with “equality”and social justice with “fraternity”, a just combination of all these four dimensions will help in achieving justicein life.

Unit-5: Rights

Sub-Unit: ‘Human Rights’

Human rights are those rights which all human beings are entitled by virtue of being human. It is based on the principle of respect for the individual. The fundamental assumption behind the concept of human rights is that every person is amoral and rational being who deserves to be treated with dignity. Human rights are both universal and fundamental; these are universal in the sense that they belong to all human beings irrespective of race, nationality, community, religion, gender, etc; these are also fundamental because once given, these cannot be taken back.

Although the presence of human rights can be traced to the ancient Indian philosophy and culture, the concept formally originated at the international level in 1948 with the UN Declaration of Human Rights listing 30 rights for all people across the globe.

Unit-7: Nationalism

Sub-Unit: ‘Multiculturalism’

Multiculturalism in the general sense is the coexistence of people of different religions, cultural groups and communities inall countries of the globe. Originated in the 1970s with a counter-culturalism and human rights movement in opposition tothe homogenization of other cultures in favor of the white culture of America and Europe, multiculturalism broadly comprises the principles of both ‘acceptance’ and ‘reverence’. It expects all countries of the globe to give equal acceptanceand reverence to the cultural groups. In the India context, the concept of multiculturalism is identified with the notion of “Salad Bowl”, advocated by social scientist, Ashish Nandy. It shows that different cultural groups within a nation maintaintheir identity with their respective distinct forms.

Class XII

Paper I: Contemporary World Politics

Unit-2: The End of Bipolarity Sub-Unit: ‘Arab Spring’

The 21st century witnessed emergence of new developments for democracies and democratization in West Asian countries,one such event is characterized as Arab Spring that began in 2009. Located in Tunisia, the Arab Spring took its roots where the struggle against corruption, unemployment and poverty was started by the public which turned into a political movement because the people considered the existing problems as outcome of autocratic dictatorship. The demand for democracy that started in Tunisia spread throughout the Muslim-dominated Arab countries in West Asia. Hosni Mubarak, who had been in power in Egypt since 1979, also collapsed as a result of the massive democratic protests. In addition, the influence of Arab Spring could also be seen in Yemen, Bahrain, Libya and Syria where similar protests by the people ledto democratic awakening throughout the region.

Unit-3: New Centres of Power Sub-Unit: ‘BRICS’

The term BRICS refers to Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa respectively. BRIC was founded in 2006 in Russia. BRIC turned into BRICS after the inclusion of South Africa in its first meeting in the year 2009. The key objectives of BRICS are primarily to cooperate and distribute mutual economic benefits among its members besides non-interference in the internal policies of each nation and mutual equality. The 11th conference of the BRICS concluded in Brazil in 2019, chaired by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro.

Sub-Unit: ‘Russia’

Russia has been the largest part of the former Soviet Union even before its disintegration. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1980s and early 1990s, Russia emerged as the strong successor of USSR [Union of Soviet Socialist Republics]. Russia’s GDP is currently 11th in the world. Russia has reserves of minerals, natural resources and gases that make it a powerful country in the global world. In addition, Russia is a nuclear state with a huge stock of sophisticated weapons. Russia is also a permanent member of the UN Security Council, called P-5.

Sub-Unit: ‘India’

The 21st century India is being seen as an important emerging global power. The world is experiencing the power and rise of India in a multidimensional way. The economic, cultural, strategic position of the country with a population of more than135 crores is very strong. From an economic perspective, targeting the goal of a $5 trillion economy, a competitive huge market, an ancient inclusive culture with 200 million people of Indian Diaspora spreading across the globe impart distinct meaning and salience to India as a new centre of power in the 21st century.

From a strategic perspective, the military of India is self-sufficient with indigenous nuclear technology making it another nuclear power. ‘Make in India’ scheme in technology and science is another milestone of Indian economy. All these changesare making India an important centre of power in the present world.

Sub-Unit: ‘Israel’

Shown on the world map with a pointer, Israel has emerged as one of the most powerful nations in the 21st century worldin terms of science and technology, defence, intelligence besides economy. Situated in the middle of the burning politics ofWest Asian countries, Israel has reached to the new heights of global political standing by virtue of its indomitable defenceprowess, technological innovations, industrialization and agricultural development. Sustaining against adversity is the principle with which a small Jewish-Zionist nation, i.e., Israel is placed in the contemporary global politics in general and the Arab-dominated West Asian politics in particular.

Unit-5: United Nations and Its Organizations Sub-Unit: ‘UNESCO’

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established on 4 November 1946. With its headquarter in Paris, France, UNESCO is a special body of the United Nations whose main objective is to promoteeducation, natural science, society and anthropology, culture and communication. During past several years, the special work done by UNESCO has been to promote literacy, technical and educational training and independent media etc. all across its member nations.

Sub-Unit: ‘UNICEF’

The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was established in 1946 by the United Nations General Assembly as a body whose main task was to collect emergency funds for children and to help in their developmentwork all across the world. Apart from this, UNICEF helps and encourages the works that promote children’s health and better life in all parts of the world. With its’ headquarter in New York, United States, UNICEF has been working successfully in almost all 193 countries of the world.

Sub-Unit: ‘ILO’

The International Labour Organization (ILO), founded in October 1919 with its headquarter in Geneva, Switzerland, is a body of the United Nations which aims to promote efficient conditions of social justice and work for workers through international labour standards at the global level. In addition, there is an incentive for women and male workers toengage in productive work and to create safety, parity and self-respectful conditions for them at the workplace.

Unit-6: Security in Contemporary WorldSub- Unit: ‘Terrorism’

Terrorism refers to systematic use of brutal violence that creates an atmosphere of fear in society. It is used for many purposes, very prominently the politico-religious purposes.

There could be three broad meanings of terrorism:

  • A systematic use of terror, often violent, especially as a means of
  • Violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror); are perpetrated for a religious, political or, ideologicalgoal; and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians).
  • Acts of unlawful violence and

There is not a single nation in the world that does not suffer from terrorism. Although some countries have tried to divide terrorism into good and bad terrorism, India has always denied this distinction. India’s current Prime Minister Narendra Modi has also clarified that terrorism cannot be divided into good or bad; it is a global problem and should be combated collectively.

Class XII

Paper II: Politics in India Since Independence

Unit-9: Challenges of Nation Building Sub-Unit: ‘Patel and National Integration’

The first deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of India, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, emerged as a major leader of the freedom movement after the Kheda Satyagraha (1918) and the Bardoli Satyagraha (1928).

At the time of independence, the problem of integration of princely states was a big challenge for the national unity and integrity of India. Under such difficult times, Sardar Patel undertook the daunting tasks of uniting all 565 princely states ofIndia. Known as an ‘Iron Man’ of India, Patel’s approach to the question of the merger of princely states into independent India was very clear. He was not in favour of any compromise with the territorial integrity of India. By his political experience, diplomatic prowess and foresightedness, out of India’s 565 princely states many had already given their consentto merge with India even before achieving the independence.

Sardar Patel faced key challenges of integration from three states, viz., Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir. It was under his leadership that Indian forces compelled Hyderabad and Junagarh to merge with India. Keeping well- versed with Pakistan’s intentions from Jinnah’s divisive ‘Two Nation Theory’, Sardar Patel’s opinion on Kashmir was different from other leaders. Like Hyderabad, he also wanted Kashmir’s integration with India through military operations. But due to various reasons, Sardar could not succeed in integrating Kashmir fully with India. However, Sardar will always remain as an astounding leader who combined in himself the features of a true ‘Nationalist’, ‘Catalyst’ and ‘Realist’ – popularly characterised as NCR in Indian political history.

Unit-2: Planned DevelopmentSub-Unit: ‘NITI Aayog’

After independence, a Planning Commission based on socialist model was formed for the planned development of India. But in the era of globalization, especially in the 21st century, it was becoming ineffective and irrelevant, particularly in termsof coping with the pressing challenges of development. Hence, during his Independence Day speech on 15 August 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi talked about the abolition of the Planning Commission. NITI Aayog was constitutedin placeof Planning Commission on 1 January 2015 with the objective of providing the necessary and technical advice to the UnionGovernment regarding policy making at the Central and State levels.

The Prime Minister of India is the ex-officio Chairman of NITI Aayog and he appoints the Vice Chairperson of NITI Aayog.The first Vice Chairperson of NITI Aayog was Arvind Panagariya. Dr Rajiv Kumar is the current Vice Chairperson of NITIAayog.

To harmonize the interests of national security and economic policy and to prepare strategic and long-term framework of policy and program, NITI Aayog acts as a think tank of the Union Government. By adopting a ‘Bottom-Up Approach’, theNITI Aayog acts in the spirit of cooperative federalism as it ensures equal participation of all states in the country.

Unit-3: India’s Foreign Policy Sub-Unit: ‘India-Israel Relations’

Nearly 45 years after independence, due to various reasons, India’s foreign policy with Israel remained largely unexplored notwithstanding the two nations gaining independence from the British colonial rule in 1947 and 1948 respectively.

Though historical and cultural ties between India and Israel have gone back from times immemorial, diplomatic relations formally developed between the two after the opening of Israeli embassy in India in 1992.

Relations between the two democratic nations further intensified with the visits of the Two Heads of Government in 2017and 2018. The two nations have started cooperation in various fields like cultural exchange, security and defence, counterterrorism, space research, water and energy and agricultural development.

Sub-Unit: ‘India’s Nuclear Program’ (Updates)

India’s nuclear policy has always been peace-oriented, whose clear impression is reflected in the policy of No First Use. Butin view of contemporary regional security challenges, the present government has made it clear that the policy of no first use can be reviewed and changed in consonance with India’s regional and national security. In addition, India is committedto ensuring its membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and opposing partisan and unjust nuclear treaties like CTBT and NPT.

Unit-5: Democratic Resurgence

Sub-Unit: ‘Jaya Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution’ [Updates]

Jaya Prakash Narayan is known for three key contributions: Fight against Corruption, Principle of Communitarian Socialismand Championing of ‘Total Revolution’.

Jaya Prakash Narayan was the first leader in post-independence India who undertook a tirade against corruption through the participation of youth, particularly in Gujarat and Bihar. He advocated the office of Lokpal against corruption. His principleof Communitarian Socialism views India as a society of communities encompassing three key layers, viz., community, region and rashtra – all combining together as an example of true federation.

Based on the above principles, Jaya Prakash Narayan advocated transformation of individual, society and state through his call for ‘Total Revolution’. His call for total revolution sought to encompass moral, cultural, economic, political, educationaland ecological transformations. His political transformation included the right to recall, the importance of village/mohalla samities in democratic politics, and his call for Upper Ke Log to join political struggle for a clean politics in the country.

The essence for transformation according to Jaya Prakash Narayan revolves around ‘Man’ who could be the real catalyst of change in India.

Sub-Unit: ‘Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism’

Ram Manohar Lohia has been one of the main proponents of socialism in India. He championed the idea of ‘Democratic Socialism’ while associating his socialism with democracy. Lohia considered both capitalism and communism equally irrelevant for Indian society. His principle of Democratic Socialism has two objectives – the economic objective in form of food and housing

and the non-economic objective in form of democracy and freedom.

Lohia advocated Chouburja Rajneeti in which he opines four pillars of politics as well as socialism: Centre, Region, Districtand Village – all are linked with each other. Giving consideration to affirmative action, Lohia argued that the policy of affirmative action should not only be for the downtrodden but also for the women and the non-religious minorities.

Based on the premise of Democratic Socialism and Chouburja Rajneeti, Lohia supported a ‘Party of Socialism’ as an attemptof merging all political parties. The Party of Socialism according to Lohia should have three symbols, viz., Spade [preparedto make efforts], Vote [power of voting], and Prison [Willingness to make sacrifices].

Sub-Unit: ‘Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism’

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was a philosopher, sociologist, economist and politician. The philosophy presented by him is called ‘Integral Humanism’ which was intended to present an ‘indigenous socio-economic model’ in which human being remains at the centre of development. The aim of Integral Humanism is to ensure dignified life for every human being while balancing the needs of the individual and society. It supports sustainable consumption of natural resources so that those resources can be replenished. Integral Humanism enhances not only political but also economic and social democracy andfreedom. As it seeks to promote diversity, it is best suited for a country as diverse as India.

The philosophy of Integral Humanism is based on the following three principles:

  • Primacy of whole, not part
  • Supremacy of Dharma
  • Autonomy of Society

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya opposed both Western ‘capitalist individualism’ and ‘Marxist socialism’. According to Deendayal Upadhyaya, capitalist and socialist ideologies only consider the needs of the human body and mind, so they are based on materialistic purpose whereas spiritual development is equally considered important for the complete developmentof human being which is missing in both capitalism and socialism. Basing his philosophy on the internal conscience, pure human soul to be called Chhitti, Deendayal Upadhyaya envisaged a classless, casteless and conflict-free social system.

Deen Dayal Upadhyaya advocated Indianization of Democracy, particularly with a focus on Economic Democracy. For him, decentralization & Swadeshi are the foundation of Economic Democracy. His philosophy broadly revolved around theprinciple of Arthayaam which states that both the absence and prominence of artha lead to the destruction and denigration of Dharma which is so central to Integral Humanism.

Sub-Unit: ‘Democratic Upsurges’

Increasing participation of the people in the democratic politics of the country is broadly characterised as democratic upsurge. Based on this principle, social scientists have characterized three democratic upsurges in post- independence history of India.

The ‘First Democratic Upsurge’ could be attributed from the 1950s till 1970s which was based on the participation of Indian adult voters to the democratic politics both at the centre and in states. Falsifying the western myth that the success of democracy requires modernization, urbanization, education and access to media, the successful holding of elections to both Lok Sabha and legislative assemblies all across states on the principle of parliamentary democracy were the testimony of India’s first democratic upsurge.

During the 1980’s, the increasing political participation of the lower classes of the society such as SCs, STs and OBCs has been interpreted as ‘Second Democratic Upsurge’. This participation has made Indian politics more accommodative and accessible for these classes. Although this upsurge has not made any major change in the standard of living of these classes,especially Dalits, the participation of these classes into the organizational and political platforms gave them the opportunityto strengthen their self-respect and ensure empowerment in the democratic politics of the country.

The era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization from the early 1990s is attributed to the emergence of a competitive market society encompassing all important sectors of economy, society and polity thus paving way for the ‘Third Democratic Upsurge’. The Third Democratic Upsurge represents a competitive electoral market which is based not on the principle of survival of the fittest but rather the survival of the ablest. It underlines three shifts in India’s electoral market: from State to Market, from Government to Governance, from State as Controller to State as Facilitator. Moreover, the Third Democratic Upsurge seeks to promote the participation of the youth who constitute a significant chunk of Indian society and have emerged as the real game changers in view of their increasing electoral preference for both development and governance inIndia’s contemporary democratic politics.

Unit-7: Regional Aspirations Sub-Unit: ‘The Kashmir Issue’

Since its integration with the Union of India, Kashmir has remained one of the burning issues in post-independence India. The problem became more complicated when it was accorded a special status in the Constitution through Article 370 and Article 35A – the former giving it special powers like having its separate Constitution/Constituent Assembly/Flag, new nomenclature for Chief Minister as Prime Minister and Governor as Sadr-e-Riyasat, and the non-enforcement of most of theUnion laws in the state while the later imparting it special citizenship rights prohibiting the non-Kashmiris from buying property in the state.

It was against the special status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir that there was a clarion call for abrogation of Articles 370 and 35A . Others equated Article 370 and 35A as ‘constitutionally recognized separatism’.

It was against this backdrop that current NDA Government presented the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Bill in Rajya Sabha on 5 August 2019 for the abolition of Section 370 and 35-A from Kashmir, which was passed by a majority.The bill was passed by the Lok Sabha on 6 August 2019. After the President’s assent on 9 August 2019, Sections 370and 35A were repealed and Jammu and Kashmir got divided into two Union Territories of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir.

Unit-8: Indian Politics: Trends and DevelopmentsSub-Unit: ‘NDA III & IV’

The Bharatiya Janata Party led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi got an absolute majority in the Lok Sabha elections held in May 2014 and after nearly 30 years in Indian politics, a strong government with an absolute majority was established atthe Centre. Though called NDA III, the BJP-led coalition of 2014 was largely different its predecessor coalition governments. Where the previous coalitions were led by one of the national parties, the NDA III coalition was not only steered by a national party, i.e., BJP it was also dominated by BJP with an absolute majority of its own in Lok Sabha. It wasalso called a ‘surplus majority coalition’. In that sense a major transformation could be seen in the nature of coalition politicswhich could be seen from one party led coalition to one party dominated coalition.

The 2019 Lok Sabha elections, the 17th since independence, once again brought back BJP led NDA [NDA IV] to the centreof power by winning more than 350 seats out of 543. The BJP on its own won 303 seats in Lok Sabha, the biggest number any single party has won in the lower house since 1984 when Congress swept the elections in the aftermath of Mrs Indira Gandhi’s assassination. Based on the tumultuous success of the BJP in 2019, Social Scientists have started equating the contemporary party system with the ‘BJP System’ where an era of one party dominance, like the ‘Congress System’ has once again started appearing on the democratic politics of India.

Sub-Unit: ‘Issues of Development and Governance’

In addition to schemes already existing, several socio-economic welfare schemes have been initiated to make developmentand governance accessible to the masses such as –

Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Jan-Dhan Yojana, Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana,Kisan Fasal Bima Yojna, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Ayushman Bharat Yojana, etc.

All these schemes intended to take administration to the doorstep of the common man by making the rural households, particularly the women, real beneficiaries of the Central Government schemes.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Is There Any Change in CBSE Class 11 Syllabus 2023-24?

No, there has been no change in the syllabus in Class 11 Political Science. The CBSE officials have published the syllabus on its website. No extra chapters have been added nor reduced from the syllabus. Therefore, it is advised for all the students to get the syllabus downloaded to their devices before they start their preparation.

2. How should I prepare for the final exam?

Although there is no one-size-fits-all for preparation strategy, the following tips would be helpful for every student of the CBSE Class 11 Political Science subject:

  • The first thing you need to do to prepare for your test is to understand the syllabus first, and the marks distributed to each chapter of your syllabus.  
  • By reading the chapters and solving the problems, you need to grasp the concept to score well in the exam.
  • Students must resolve their doubts from their teachers and browse on Google. Failing to do so will significantly affect their score on the exam
  • They must solve the CBSE extra questions and CBSE sample papers to know what kind of questions they can expect in the exam. If they have time, they can also learn the CBSE important question
  • Since there are no formulas for Political Science. The more you revise the better your score is the only formula to score well in the exam. So, prepare your CBSE revision notes and study them regularly
  •  Most importantly solve the CBSE past years’ question papers

3. What are the topics of part A in the CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Political Science Term (1 & 2)2023-24?

The detailed syllabus has already been discussed in the tables given above. You can get to know about the syllabus for term 1 and term 2 from there. If you want to download the syllabus to your device- a PDF file is also there for the students to download on their devices. 

4. What is there in part B of the CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Political Science Term (1 & 2)2023-24?

Check the table above to get the detailed syllabus for the Class 11 CBSE term 1 and term 2 syllabus. 

5. Which are the extra books that can be referred to while studying the CBSE syllabus for Class 11 Political Science Term (1 & 2) 2023-24?

Students of the CBSE board should study the NCERT books first before going to the other books. They can take references from other books suggested by their teachers. However, you don’t need to worry about finding the right material when you have the guidance of experts of Extramarks. You can get well-researched and good-quality notes and concept analyses from the teachers of Extramarks. Join the live classes provided by the Extramarks and get the solution for every query you have. 

6. What is the most important chapter in the CBSE Class 11 Political Science?

This is a question that every student asks. Well, as per the marks distribution, in Part A the most important chapter is the Constitution and in Part B the most important chapter is citizenship and Nationalism. As per the suggestions of Extramarks’ teachers, all chapters are important as every chapter unfolds different topics, concepts, and aspects of Political Science. So, it is advisable for the students of Class 11 to study every chapter with proper dedication. 

7. Why is it important to study Political Science?

CBSE has issued the syllabus for Political Science in the academic session 2023. Various CBSE-affiliated schools are following the syllabus. It is important for the students to develop the basic concept of the subject. The teachers have always advised the students to adhere to the syllabus of NCERT, as the books are designed to give students enough knowledge about Political Science. Moreover, studying the subjects will unveil many political and social issues that the world is facing right now and make you prepared to solve them in the future. So, developing knowledge and understanding of the subject will unveil many career opportunities in the future including those that need direct participation.

8. What is the role of a Political Science teacher in studying the subject?

A teacher is important for studying the Political Science subject because of the following reasons:

  • The role of a teacher is infinite in a student’s journey of studying the chapters of the Political Science syllabus. A teacher plays the greatest role in the journey of a student irrespective of the subject. 
  • A teacher must be dedicated to teaching students the concept of the subject clearly, help students understand the concept of Political Science with real-life examples
  • Must conduct weekly tests and discussions in the class to test how deeply they have understood a topic
  • Must give them the important notes that are required during their studies
  • Must be capable of solving the doubts of the students, and give them proper suggestions for the exam

Extramarks know the importance of the student-teacher relationship during preparation for the exam. So, it pays enough attention to the above-mentioned objectives for the students. 

9. Is it fun to study Political Science?

Well, if you have an interest in worldwide political phenomena or activities, the subject will certainly grab your attention, and help you understand the core behind the national and international policies. 

10. What are the benefits of pursuing Political Science in higher studies?

If you take Political Science in your higher studies, it will help you get jobs that are involved with nation-building. It gives you an extra edge during your preparation for the civil services exam. You can take up the job of a Policy Analyst, Lawyer, Legislative Assistant, Teaching, and Journalism. The deeper you would understand the subject, the upper-tier job you will get in the future.