CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Revision Notes Chapter 10
Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes – Haloalkanes and Haloarene
Chapter 10 of Class 12 Chemistry is about Haloalkanes and Haloarene. Alkyl halides and aryl halides are hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been changed with halogen atoms. The primary difference between haloalkanes (alkyl halide) and haloarenes (aryl halide) are haloalkanes derived from open-chain hydrocarbons (alkanes), whereas haloarenes are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons.
Haloalkane contains halogen atoms attached to the sp3 hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group, whereas haloarene consists of halogen atoms attached to sp2 hybridised carbon atoms of an aryl group.
These haloalkane and arenes are used extensively as solvents in the case of non-polar compounds, and their application is seen in refrigerants, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, propellants etc.
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Key Topics Covered in Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes
Alkyl halides(haloalkanes) and Aryl halides (haloarenes) are organic compounds obtained by replacing one or more Hydrogen atoms of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively with halogen atoms.
In this chapter, students will study the reactions involved in the preparation and various reactions they undergo, , their physical and chemical properties, polyhalogen compounds and uses of organohalogen compounds.
For every concept included in the Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes, a summary has been provided below.
The Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes, the Alkyl and Aryl Halides can be classified as: :
- Depending on the number of Halogen atoms:
Depending on several halogen atoms present in haloalkanes and haloarenes, they can be classified as mono (one atom), di (two atoms), or Polyhalogen (tri- (three atoms), tetra- (four atoms), etc.) compounds. For example., chloroethane and chlorobenzene.
- Based on compounds containing sp3 hybridised Carbon-halogen Bond:
- Alkyl halides or haloalkanes (R—X) create a homologous series represented by CnH2n+1X and can be further classified as primary, secondary or tertiary.
- Allylic halides: The compounds with halogen atoms bonded to sp3-hybridised carbon to carbon-carbon double bond (C=C), i.e. to an allylic carbon.
- Benzylic halides: The halogen atom of these compounds is bonded to sp3-hybridised carbon atoms placed next to an aromatic ring.
- Based on compounds containing sp2 hybridised carbon-halogen bond:
- Vinylic halides: The halogen atom of these compounds is bonded to an sp2-hybridised carbon atom of a carbon-carbon double bond (C = C).
- Aryl halides– The halogen atom of these compounds is bonded to the sp2-hybridised carbon atom of an aromatic ring.
Students can get further details about its classification with more example solutions and illustrations from Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes after registering on the website.
IUPAC Nomenclature of Haloalkanes
Classification of halogenated compounds is followed by how they are named(Nomenclature):
- Select the longest chain of carbon that contains the halogen atom.
- Give the least possible number to the halogen atom.
- The carbon-containing double or triple bond is given the least number.
- Place the suitable suffix like di, tri, and tetra for 2, 3, and 4 halogen atoms.
- Name the compounds as haloalkanes, halo alkenes or halo alkynes.
Nomenclature of Haloarenes
- They are commonly known as aryl halides.
- Numerical prefixes (1,2) ; (1,3) ; (1,4) for positions of the compound concerning the halogen atom.
- The halogen atom is given the least number.
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The nomenclature of Haloarenes and Haloalkanes has been covered at length in the Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes for students to get a complete and clear understanding of its nature. It ensures active learning and tries to do away with rote learning.
Nature of C-X Bond in Haloarene:
Haloalkanes and haloarenes are named halogen-substituted hydrocarbons in the IUPAC system of nomenclature. The naming rules for such compounds are the same as those used for hydrocarbons considering halogens as substituents.
The common names of these compounds are derived by writing the appropriate name of alkyl or aryl group rule followed by halide:
- The C-X bond in haloarenes is polarised, as halogens are more electronegative than carbon atoms. The electronegativity of halogen attracts the electron cloud more towards itself and gains a slight negative charge. On the other hand, carbon acquires a little +ve charge.
- As halogens require only one electron to achieve their nearest inert gas configuration, one sigma bond is formed between one carbon and one halogen atom.
- Due to the enhancement in atomic size from fluorine to astatine, the C-X bond length in haloarenes increases from fluorine to astatine and bond dissociation strength decreases.
- The dipole moment is based on the difference in electronegativity of carbon and halogens (group 17 trend properties).
As the electronegativity of halogens reduces down the group, the dipole moment decreases. There is an exception to C-Cl and C-F dipole moments. Though the electronegativity of chlorine is less than fluorine, the dipole moment of a C-Cl bond is more than a C-F bond.
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Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes:
Preparation of alkyl halides from alcohols:
Alcohol reacts with halogen acids under anhydrous conditions to form haloalkanes. Treatment of alcohol with hydrochloride HCl in the presence of anhydrous ZnCl2 phosphorus pentachloride, PX3(P4 + X2)or SOCl2 leads to the preparation of alkyl halide. This is known as Groove’s process. Students can learn more about the preparation of haloalkanes theoretical concepts from our Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes embedded with illustrations, diagrams, and keynotes for better memory retention and revision later.
- i) By reaction with halogen acids:
CH3CH2OH + HCl CH3CH2Cl +H2O
While alcohols do not require ZnCl2, one and 2-degree alcohols require anhydrous ZnCl2. A mixture of concentrated HCl and anhydrous ZnCl2 is termed Lucas reagents.
Primary and secondary alkyl halides are prepared from their respective alcohols using HCl gas and anhydrous ZnCl2.
- ii) By the action of phosphorus halides:
3ROH + PX3 →3RX + H3PO3
The action of PCl3 or PCl5 can synthesise alkyl chlorides.
CH3CH2OH + PCl5 CH3CH2Cl + POCl3 + HCl
As explained in our Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes, Darzens halogenation is a chemical process involving the preparation of alkyl halides from alcohols by treating with reflux of thionyl chloride or bromide (SOX2) in the presence of a small quantity of a nitrogen base like tertiary amine or pyridine, or the equivalent HCl hydrochloride.
Alkyl bromide and iodides cannot be prepared by this darzen method. This is because thionyl bromide is unstable, and thionyl iodide does not exist. This method is preferred for preparing alkyl halides because here, by-products are gaseous SO2 and HCl that escape easily. But this does not happen in this method involving phosphorus chloride; hence it is not used for preparing alkyl chlorides.
CH3CH2OH + SOCl2 CH3CH2Cl +SO2 + HCl
By halogenation of alkanes in the presence of light, catalyst or heat:
Alkane reacts with halogens in sunlight and at high temperatures to give a mono and poly haloalkanes mixture. Mono haloalkanes are the primary product if alkane is used in excess quantity. One by one, all hydrogen is substituted by halogen.
By halogenating alkenes with HX:
Hydrogen halides like HCl, HBr, or HI add alkenes to form alkyl halides. The addition of hydrogen halides to asymmetrical alkene follows Markovnikov’s rule with the possibility of rearrangement.
Alkynes interact with Cl2 or Br2 dissolved in CCl4 to give vicinal tetrahalides
CH3-CCH + 2Br2 CH3CBr2 CHBr2s
The Hunsdiecker reaction is a halogenation reaction involving an organic mix between silver salts of carboxylic acids and halogens, resulting in the formation of organic halides.
RCOOAg + Br2 →RBr +CO2 + AgBr
Alkyl iodides are generally prepared by halide exchange in the Finkelstein reaction. In this method, alkyl chloride or alkyl bromide is reacted with sodium iodide in acetone or methanol to give alkyl iodide in reasonably good yield.
CH3CH2Cl +NaI CH3CH2I + NaCl
If you wish to learn more about the methods for preparing Haloalkanes refer to Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes. As mentioned earlier, these notes not only help you in the last-minute preparation but also in memory retention.
Methods of Preparation of Aryl Halides:
This method can prepare aryl chlorides and bromides. This aryl halide is prepared by treating arena with chlorine or bromine in the absence of sunlight and halogen carriers like AlCl3, FeCl3 etc., at low temperatures. It is an electrophilic substitution.
However, the yield of chlorobenzene is significantly less as the main product is Triphenyl phosphate.
Silver propionate reacts with bromine in the presence of acetone or( CCl4 as a solvent) formed bromoethane, silver bromide and carbon dioxide.
C2H5COOAg + Br2 —- C2H5Br + CO2 + AgBr
Diazonium salts are highly reactive compounds used to synthesise arene derivatives. Treating diazonium salts with copper (I) chloride (Cu2Cl2) or copper (I) bromide (Cu2Br2) leads to the formation of the corresponding haloarene. This reaction is called the Sandmeyer reaction.
Haloarenes can also be prepared by reaction of benzene diazonium chloride with copper powder in the presence of corresponding halogen acid. This reaction is termed the Gattermann reaction.
Many students find these topics complex and confusing, not so easy to understand. Students can rely on Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes to gain a better understanding of the subject. Our Chemistry subject matter experts have prepared study notes to understand the core concepts and answer any question with ease.
Physical Properties of Haloalkanes:
- Alkyl halides are colourless in a pure state. Bromides and iodides cultivate colours on exposure to light.
- Volatile halogen compounds possess a pleasant smell. If the Intermolecular forces of attraction of halogen derivatives are more vital because of greater polarity and molecular mass than the parent hydrocarbon results in higher boiling points of chlorides, bromides, and iodides than hydrocarbons of equivalent molecular mass.
- The boiling points of alkyl halides for the same alkyl group follow the order- RI> RBr> RCl> RF due to the increase in size and mass of halogen atoms, thereby increasing the extent of van der Waal forces.
- In isomeric haloalkanes, the boiling points decrease with an increase in branching.
- Para-isomers possess high melting points compared to ortho- and meta-isomers due to the symmetry of para-isomers fitting in the crystal lattice better than ortho- and meta-isomers.
- Density increases with an increase in the number of carbon atoms, halogen atoms and atomic mass of the halogen atoms. Consequently, the density of Bromo, iodo and poly-chloro as derivatives of hydrocarbons is more significant than in water.
- The haloalkane is only very slightly soluble in water due to less energy during the setup of new attractions between the haloalkane and the water molecules, which is insufficient to overcome the attractions between the haloalkane molecules and break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
- Haloalkanes dissolve quickly in organic solvents due to the new intermolecular forces of attraction between haloalkanes and solvent molecules, having equivalent strength as the one broken in separate haloalkane and solvent molecules.
Substitution reaction in haloalkanes:
Nucleophilic substitution reactions are the most common reactions of alkyl halides. The most common nucleophiles are OH–, CN.-, NO2-, SH.-, NH2–, OR– and RCOO–
Following are some examples:
Nucleophilic substitution may take place in two steps:
SN1 Mechanism and SN2 Mechanism.
- SN2 substitution nucleophilic bimolecular: SN2 is a single-step bimolecular reaction in which the incoming nucleophile attacks the C atom of a substrate in a direction opposite to the outgoing nucleophiles. The reaction passes through a transition phase in which both the incoming and outgoing nucleophiles are bonded to the same carbon atom.
- SN1 mechanism: SN1 is a two-step unimolecular reaction. The first step is the moderate ionisation of the substrate and is the rate-determining step. The second step is the fast reaction between the carbocation (formed in the first step) and the nucleophile. SN1 reactions commonly proceed in polar protic solvents such as H2O, CH3OH, CH3COOH etc.
The tertiary alkyl halides react by the SN1 mechanism via the formation of carbocation as an intermediate. The reactivity order for SN1 reaction is -Benzyl > Allyl > 3̊ > 2̊ > 1̊ > CH3X.
Solvent: When a carbocation undergoes solvation, it allows the carbocation to be surrounded by more electron density, making the +ve charge more stable. The solvent may be protic or aprotic, but it must be polar.
Nucleophiles: Those nucleophiles that undergo the SN1 mechanism are weak neutral molecules.
- Primary allylic and benzylic halides exhibit higher reactivity in SN1 reactions than other primary alkyl halides due to the more excellent stabilisation of allylic and benzylic carbocation.
- Vinylic and aryl halides are non-reactive in nucleophilic substitution reactions. This is because of the double bond character of the C-X bond due to resonance.
Optical isomerism/ enantiomerism: As explained in our Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes, optical isomer is known as the dextrorotatory isomer (Latin: dexter means right), (d-form or +ve) if it rotates the plane-polarised light to the right (clockwise) side and laevorotatory isomer (Latin: laevo means left), (l-form or –ve) if it rotates the plane-polarised light to the left (anticlockwise) side. An equimolar mixture of the d and l-form will be optically inactive and is known as a racemic mixture (or dl- form or (±)-mixture). The conversion of an enantiomer to a racemic mixture is known as racemisation.
Chirality: The compound is said to have chirality if the central carbon atom is attached to four different groups. This centre is called the chiral (asymmetric) centre or stereogenic centre, or stereocenter.
Achirality: The compound is said to have achirality if the central carbon atom has at least two identical groups, and this centre is called achiral (symmetric). If the molecule has a plane of symmetry, it is achiral (not chiral), and if a molecule has no plane of symmetry, it is chiral.
Enantiomers d and l isomers: These are the optical isomers that are non-superimposable mirror images (or dissymmetric).
Diastereomers: They are optical isomers which do not mirror images of each other. They have various physical properties and magnitudes of specific rotation.
Meso compounds: These compounds have two or more even numbers of a chiral carbon atom and have an internal plane of symmetry. It is optically inactive due to internal compensation.
Reaction of Haloarenes:
Nucleophilic substitution reaction:
Haloarenes are less reactive than haloalkanes towards nucleophilic substitution reactions. In aryl halide, the lone pair of electrons on the halogen atom is delocalised with the pi electrons of a benzene ring. It acquires partial double bonds character in carbon halogen bonds due to resonance. Therefore, breaking the carbon halogen bond in haloarenes is more challenging than in haloalkanes.
- Aryl halides are colourless stable liquids with a pleasant smell.
- These halides are insoluble in water but readily miscible with organic solvents.
- Many of them are steam volatile, heavier than water.
- Their b.p. are higher than corresponding alkyl halides.
- The boiling point rises gradually from fluoro to iodo compounds.
Nucleophilic substitution reactions :
The presence of an electron-withdrawing group (NO2) at ortho- and para-positions increases the reactivity of haloarenes.
Electrophilic substitution reactions:
Haloarenes are somewhat less reactive than benzene towards electrophilic substitution reactions of the benzene ring due to the halogen atoms’ effect, which decreases benzene’s electron density. Haloarenes undergo halogenation, nitration, sulphonation and Friedel craft reactions.
A Friedel-Crafts reaction is an organic coupling reaction involving an electrophilic aromatic substitution that is used for the attachment of substituents to aromatic rings. The two primary types of Friedel-Crafts reactions are the alkylation and acylation reactions.
Reaction with metals:
When treated with sodium in the presence of dry ether, Haloarenes react like haloalkanes to give diaries. This is known as the Fitting reaction.
When a mixture of haloalkane and haloarene is treated with sodium under identical conditions, we get alkyl arene.
Most organic chlorides and iodides interact with certain metals to give compounds containing carbon-metal bonds called organometallic compounds.
For example, RMgX was referred to as the Grignard Reagent in 1900 by scientist Victor Grignard.
Carbon- Magnesium n = bond is covalent but highly polar.
Grignard reagents are highly reactive and interact with any proton source to give hydrocarbons.
- Nucleophile Substitution.
- Elimination Reaction.
- Reaction with metals.
Nucleophilic Substitution: Resonance effect
Aryl halides are significantly less reactive toward Nucleophilic substitution reactions. Let’s discuss the resonance effect.
Nucleophilic substitution- sp2 hybridised:
The carbon-Halogen bond in haloalkane is 177 Pico metres. At the same time, the C-X bond in haloarenes is 169 Pico metres. Hence, the C-X bond in haloarenes is strong, stable, and difficult to break. Therefore the Nucleophilic substitution in haloarenes is difficult.
Nucleophilic Substitution: Not stable cation:
Resonance structure is impossible, and Cation formation is also impossible as the cation is unstable.
This shows that SN1 is ruled out.SN2 is possible.
- Chloromethane (Methylene chloride):
- It is used as a solvent, paint remover, propellant in aerosols, and process solvent in the manufacture of drugs.
- It is used as a cleaning metal and finishing solvent.
- Human beings can be adversely affected when exposed to Methylene.
- Human exposure to even lower levels of methylene chloride in the atmosphere can lead to dizziness, nausea, tingling, numbness in fingers and toes, etc.
- Direct exposure to Methylene chloride can affect intense burning and mild redness in the skin.
- The cornea of the eyes can adversely burn on direct exposure to Methylene.
- Trichloromethane (Chloroform)
- Chloroform is a sweet-smelling, heavy and colourless liquid. It has a low Boiling Point of 61o C
- It is insoluble in the water though readily soluble in organic solvents.
- If inhaled, it can make a human unconscious by disrupting the major functioning of intercellular protein synthesis..
- It is used as an anaesthetic. When pure chloroform is inhaled, it affects the heart. After mixing with ether and other suitable anaesthetics, chloroform can be used as an anaesthetic. Also, used as an anaesthetic in dentistry during root canal procedures. Now, its main application is in the area of agriculture.
- Chloroform on oxidation in the atmosphere leads to phosgene production, a poisonous gas that should be stored in a dark-coloured bottle.
CHCl3 + ½ O2—- COCl2 + HCl in the presence of light
- Before using chloroform as an anaesthetic, it is tested with AgNO3. Poisonous chloroform gives a white precipitate with silver nitrate AgNO3.
- Triiodomethane (Iodoform)
- It is used as an antiseptic due to the involvement of free iodine. It is not because of the iodoform itself.
- Because of the offensive smell, it was replaced by several other solutions, including iodine.
- Tetrachloromethane (Carbon tetrachloride)
- They are utilised in manufacturing refrigerants and propellants for aerosol cans.
- It is also used for the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons, pharmaceuticals etc.
- It was extensively used as a cleaning agent in industry and as a degreasing agent at home.
- It is also utilised as a spot remover and fire extinguisher.
- Exposure to CCl4 can adversely affect the heartbeat and make it beat irregularly or permanently stop.
- Exposure to the eyes can cause irritation. It is used as feedstock in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals.
- Exposure to the atmosphere can lead to ozone depletion, leading to a rise in exposure to ultraviolet rays. This, in turn, leads to an increased risk of skin cancer, eye diseases and other disorders such as a weak immune system.
- The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of ethane and methane are jointly termed freons.
- They are very stable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, and non-reactive liquefiable gases.
- Freon 12 (CCl2F2) is the most commonly used Freons in industries.
- Freons are manufactured from tetrachloromethane using Swarts reaction.
- Freons are used in aerosol propellants, refrigerants and air conditioners.
p,p’– dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
- DDT terms are the first chlorinated organic insecticide initially discovered in 1873 and further studied. In 1939, Paul Muller invented the effectiveness of DDT as an insecticide.
- It is very poisonous to all living organisms as it does not get metabolised rapidly by animals and gets deposited and stored in the fatty tissues.
Students can refer to Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes for getting detailed topic notes about that Polyhalogen compound.
Uses of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes:
Some critical applications of these compounds are shown below:
- These organic compounds can dissolve non-polar compounds and are used as solvents.
- Many derivatives of haloalkanes and haloarenes are used in medicine. One such example is the compound chloramphenicol, which is used to treat cases of typhoid.
- Another example is chloroquine, which is very useful in treating malaria.
- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (commonly referred to as DDT) is used as an insecticide.
Some haloalkanes and haloarenes have adverse effects on the environment and are considered pollutants. One such example is chlorofluorocarbons (or CFCs) which lead to the depletion of the ozone layer that protects the earth from the harmful radiation coming from the sun.
Students can learn more about the uses of haloalkanes and haloarenes from Extramarks Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes.
Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes: Exercise & Solutions
Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes, Exercise and Solutions are vital aspects of the study material that students can refer to. The solutions provided in this section help students understand how to answer questions as per CBSE standards.
Students can click on the links given below to view exercise-specific questions and their solutions which are covered in the Extramarks NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10:
Chapter 1: Exercise 1.1 Solutions: 4 Questions
Chapter 1: Exercise 1.2 Solutions: 4 Questions
Chapter 1: Exercise 1.3 Solutions: 4 Questions
Chapter 1: Exercise 1.4 Solutions: 4 Questions
The exercise and answer solutions provided by Extramarks are detailed to ensure that students understand the concept and won’t require any other assistance for assignments, tests and exam preparation. These notes are concise, authentic study material which is the ultimate tool for students to enhance their grades.
The exercises and solutions provided by Extramarks are comprehensive and provide detailed explanations to ensure that the students enjoy the learning process and can handle any tricky question with ease.
Students can also explore NCERT Solutions for other classes on their website:
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The Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes on haloalkanes and haloarenes add to students’ learning skills and test their information recall, comprehension, analytical thinking, and problem-solving ability. It is the most comprehensive study material students can rely on to study, practice questions, and prepare for Board and various other entrance examinations. Students may find different information under one channel, making studying easier, especially during board examinations.
NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry
By practising these advanced level NCERT Exemplar questions, students can have better clarity on all the concepts and develop better problem-solving skills to be confident in facing different types of questions in the examination related to Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Furthermore, students can refer below to the chapter-wise exemplar problem and Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry, available on the Extramarks website.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry -Exemplar
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CBSE Revision Notes
Key Features of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes is an important topic for examinations like IIT, JEE and NEET. While studying Chemistry, the concise and authentic notes and solutions provided by Extramarks is quite useful whether the students need last-minute preparation or comprehensive, detailed material to crack the competitive tests with ease. Be selective about the resources you access depending on what level you are at and what exactly you need to boost your preparation and move on to the next level.
Some of the critical features of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes are:
- Prepared by experienced subject matter experts who strictly follow the NCERT books and latest CBSE guidelines
- These critical notes include a detailed explanation of every topic present in the chapter.
- They can be used to study right after school for class assignments, and tests, or used as revision notes before examinations.
- The Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes are helpful for all types of Board Examinations and various competitive Examinations. During exams, you won’t need any other help or assistance if you are using Extramarks resource which has solutions for all your queries. Don’t forget to pick the right study material to step up your academic performance and stay ahead of the pack.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Can the Chapter 10 Chemistry Class 12 Notes be used as Revision Notes?
Definitely, Chemistry Chapter 10 Class 12 Notes can be used as revision notes as it gives all the information students need to understand the chapter. It allows students to study for the examinations without being stressed and anxious. These notes are the concise, authentic study material that is the ultimate tool for students to speed up their preparation and improve their grades.
2. How vital is Chemistry Chapter 10 for the CBSE Board Examination?
Chemistry may seem like an intimidating subject. In addition, Chapter 10 is a vital topic that might seem a bit difficult or challenging. It is crucial to note that haloalkane and haloarenes have a lot of weightage, and students can expect questions from this chapter in the board examinations. Students may refer to Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes and other study materials on the Extramarks website.
3. Does Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Notes cover all topics of haloalkanes and haloarenes?
Haloalkanes and haloarenes Chapter 10 is a vast topic, however, each and every concept has been covered in the Extramarks Chemistry Class 12 Chapter 10 Notes.
For a more detailed explanation of the topics, students can visit the Extramarks website and access a repository of study resources available for the students.