CBSE Class 6 Science Revision Notes Chapter 16

CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Revision Notes – Garbage In, Garbage Out

Class 6 Science Chapter 16 notes are concise and to the point. These notes cover concepts, terms and all the explanations for topics related to waste, its types, plastics and how waste can be managed and disposed of. Subject matter experts curate these revision notes as per the revised CBSE (NCERT) books and syllabus. 

Students can get access to these notes from the Extramarks website. These comprehensive notes help students gain an in-depth understanding of this topic. It is best to refer to these notes while preparing for the exams.

Revision Notes for CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 16

Access Class 6 Science Chapter 16 – Garbage in, Garbage out Notes


  • Every day a lot of waste or garbage is produced around us, such as the wrappers of toffees, waste paper, packets, clothes, food, etc. 
  • Garbage is a term used to denote any material that is not useful and has to be disposed of as it cannot be recycled or reused. 
  • It is categorised into various types on the basis of the source of the waste attained, its toxicity as well as its nature.

 Types of Waste Based on the Source of Garbage

  • Domestic Wastes: It consists of all the organic waste that is created by households such as kitchen waste which includes waste food, cardboard, fruit and vegetable peels, paper, cans, tins, utensils, etc. Usually, these wastes are collected in urban areas daily or handled in rural areas.
  • Industrial Wastes: All the wastes that are produced by industries are usually toxic and impact our health. Common industrial wastes are fly ash, glass, plastic, etc. These are usually generated by the iron and steel, fertiliser, paint and chemical industries.
  • Agricultural Wastes: The dominant source of income for several people is agriculture. Agriculture generates a huge amount of waste in the form of husks, animal manure, straws, weeds, dried stems and occasionally harmful pesticide or fertiliser outpours combined with the water bodies.
  • Commercial Wastes: These include the waste that is generated by commercial places such as hotels, malls, shops, restaurants, etc.
  • Bio-Medical Waste: All the waste that is generated in hospitals and medical centres is bio-medical waste.

Type of Wastes Based on Toxicity

  • Toxic Wastes: This type of waste causes harm and poses threats to one’s health. Some common examples of toxic waste are electronic waste such as phones, paints, batteries, industrial waste, etc.
  • Non-Toxic Wastes: These types of waste do not pose any danger to health. Some examples of non-toxic wastes are paper, vegetable peels, etc. 

Types of Wastes Based on Their Nature of Degradation

  • Biodegradable Wastes: The waste that can be converted into simple components of carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, or other forms with the help of microorganisms is known as biodegradable. After these wastes are broken down into simple forms, they are transformed into useful materials which can be used as manure for the soil. Some examples of biodegradable wastes are animal waste, vegetable and fruit peels, farm waste, etc.
  • Non-Biodegradable Wastes:  Microorganisms cannot break down these wastes into simpler forms. These wastes stay in the soil for a long time and pose harm to organisms. Some examples of non-biodegradable wastes are parts of electronic items, plastics, tires, glass, etc.


  • Plastics are usually found as a primary material in a range of products such as containers, bottles, toys, pipes, carry bags, pens, materials like plastic wraps, etc.
  • Plastics are usually lightweight and easy to manage but their disposal is the main problem. 
  • Plastics are imperishable. 
  • Plastics are capable of causing health issues and contaminating the environment.

Negative Effects of Plastics

  • When plastics are burnt, they release toxic gases into the air. This contaminates the air and can cause many diseases.
  • During the rainy season, the plastics in the waste choke the drains, which can lead to floods.
  • Animals may consume plastic found in waste, which may cause choking and death.
  • Food kept in plastic containers is not always suitable for eating and can cause health issues.
  • Plastic pollutes the soil and causes harmful effects during cultivation.
  • Global warming can result from the accumulation of plastic waste in the environment.

Ways To Reduce Plastic Waste Generation

  • Start using cloth bags for shopping instead of using plastic bags.
  • Throw plastic waste into dustbins. Avoid throwing them on the streets or in the water bodies.
  • Do not store food items in bags made up of plastics.
  • Do not burn plastic waste in open spaces.
  • Recycle plastic waste after use.
  • Educate others about the negative effects of using plastics.

Management and Disposal of Waste

  • Any form of waste generated needs to be managed and disposed of properly for the safety of people living around it and to keep the environment clean. 
  • The Government of India launched the ‘ Swachh Bharat Mission’ which aims at making India an open defecation-free country by October 2, 2019. 
  • There are different ways to maintain garbage or waste. They are mentioned below.
  • Use of Landfills
  • A landfill is a large low-lying area. Garbage is dumped after it is collected from diverse places. 
  • The materials that can be either reused or recycled are separated from it and the remaining garbage is scattered and it is layered with soil on it. 
  • Later as the landfill is full, it is transformed into a park or ground. Buildings are not constructed in this area.
  • Composting 
  • It is a method of transforming biodegradable waste such as kitchen and food waste into a nutrient-filled substance that can be put to use as manure for plants. 
  • To make compost, a pit is made in the ground and waste is dumped into it. 
  • After a long time, microorganisms decompose wastes and convert them into manure.
  • Vermicomposting
  • It is a type of composting when redworms are used to decompose the waste. The redworms are inserted into the pit along with the waste.  
  • Red worms feed on the waste and discharge the ingested material rich in nutrients. 
  • Following the 3Rs principle
  • Reduce:  This means to reduce or lessen the usage of things that contaminate the environment and generate waste like plastics, glass, etc.
  • Reuse: This means using materials till their utility has been completely exhausted, such as reusing old clothes to create something or using both sides of any paper.

Recycle: This means transforming waste material into something useful or inventing a completely new product. For example, plastics that can be recycled to get flower pots, etc.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is vermicomposting?

Earthworms are considered to be farmers’ friends. A type of earthworm known as redworm is put to use for composting. This method of creating compost with the aid of redworms is known as vermicomposting.

2. What is a landfill?

 An area where the garbage is dumped after gathering from a city or town is a landfill.

3. What is composting?

Transforming plant and animal waste as well as waste from the kitchen, into manure, is termed composting.

4. What is the aim of the Swachh Bharat Mission?

The Swachh Bharat Mission was launched by the Prime Minister of India on 2nd October, 2014. This mission aims to make an open defecation-free India.