CBSE Class 6 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 2

Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes

CBSE Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes – Globe Latitudes and Longitudes

The spherical models of the Earth are called globes. The globes serve a similar purpose to that of the maps. The term “terrestrial globe” refers to the model globe created for the Earth. The celestial globe is the model globe that is used to represent the celestial sphere. The Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes contain all the required information to understand globes.

Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes Globe Latitudes and Longitudes

Access Class 6 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 2 – Globe Latitudes and Longitudes – Notes

  1. The globe we can see is an image of the Earth. The needle’s axis, which describes how it passes through the balloon, is oblique.
  2. The Earth is evenly divided into two halves by a hypothetical line that passes through it. It is known as the Equator.
  3. Latitudes are all of the parallel circles that run horizontally from the equator up to the poles. A latitude is measured in degrees.
  4. The width of the line of latitude narrows as we move away from the equator. The following are the four crucial parallel lines of latitude.
  5. Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N of equator)
  6. Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 °S of equator)
  7. Arctic Circle (66.3°N of equator)
  8. Antarctic Circle (66.3°S of equator)
  9. The Torrid Zone of the Earth receives the most heat.
  10. In Temperate Zones, the temperature is moderate. China, America, North India, etc., are a few examples.
  11. The climate in the frigid zone is cold as the Sun’s rays are deviated.


The term “Longitude Meridian” refers to the line that runs between the North and South Poles.

They are separated from one another by a “degree of longitude.”

The longitude of each meridian is the same.

The Prime Meridian is the one that runs through Greenwich, where the Royal Observatory is also situated.

East longitude and West longitude are calculated from the Prime Meridian’s value of 0° longitude.

The eastern and western hemispheres of the Earth are divided into two equal parts by the Prime Meridian.

Longitudes of 180 degrees East and West are on the same line.

Any point on the planet can be found if we know its latitude and longitude.

Longitude and Time

As the Earth rotates from West to East,  places located in the East of Greenwich will be ahead of the time in Greenwich, whereas the places located in the West will be behind Greenwich time.

The Earth completes one 360-degree rotation in 24 hours.

The watch can be set to 12 o’clock wherever the sun is at its highest point in the sky.

Standard Time:The local time varies from place to place, so it is necessary to use the local time of a certain central meridian in a certain country as the standard time.

The accepted standard meridian for India is 82.5°E. On this meridian, the local time is known as Indian Standard Time (IST).

India is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, at an easterly latitude of 82°30′.

Some nations use multiple standard times because they have a significant vertical extension.

The globe is a miniature representation of the real world. The balloon is punctured by a shaft-shaped needle at an angle.

The poles are two extreme points where the Earth’s axis passes through the North Pole and South Pole. On the Earth, this axis is depicted as a needle.

The Equator is the line that circles the Earth perpendicular to its axis and through its centre. This line divides the Earth into two hemispheres, namely the Northern hemisphere and the Southern hemisphere. More circles with different radii and centres on the axis run parallel to the equator. These circles are called the Lines of Latitude.

Degrees determine whether two lines are parallel. The equator stands at a latitude of 0 degrees. North (° N), or latitude, is the name of the northern hemisphere’s latitude. 10°N, 20°N, and so on up to 90°N, which is the North Pole). Similar to this, the South Pole is located at 90° South latitude, also known as South latitude (°S).

The Prime Meridian is the circle that runs through Greenwich, England, perpendicular to the equator and parallel to the axis. The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into its two hemispheres, namely the Eastern and Western hemispheres. Therefore, the Earth is divided into four equal parts by the equator and the prime meridian. Additional circles with equal radii and centres located at the centre of the Earth run parallel to the primary meridian. These are known as Longitudes.

Degrees are used to calculate the length. The Prime Meridian represents longitude degrees zero.East longitude (° E) is the name given to the longitude of the Eastern hemisphere. 10°E, 20°E, and so on until 180°. The same applies in the Western Hemisphere. Minutes are divided into seconds, which in turn are divided into degrees. The second is denoted by a double apostrophe (“), while the symbol for one minute is an apostrophe (‘). One degree is made up of 60 feet (or 60 minutes), and one minute is made up of 60 inches (or 60 seconds). Thus, 30’ denotes a half-degree and 40” means two-thirds of a minute.

Despite being at the same latitude, two points on Earth can still be very far apart. Additionally, two far-off points may share the same longitude. However, a particular latitude and longitude pair only contains one point. Therefore, a point on the Earth can be located using latitude and longitude.

There are two unique latitudes in the Northern hemisphere: the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle. They are situated at 23 1/2 ° N and 66 1/2 ° N, respectively.

In the Southern hemisphere, there are two special latitudes, namely, the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle. They are situated at 23 1/2 ° S and 66 1/2 ° S, respectively,

The region that experiences the most heat from the sun is that which lies between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. This region is known as the Torrid Zone.

The temperatures between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Antarctic Circle and Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere are moderate. These areas are called Temperate Zones.

What is Latitude?

The latitude of any location north or south of the equator can be accurately measured on a map or globe.A fictitious line known as the Prime Meridian is used to calculate latitude. Any angle between 0° at the equator and 90° at the poles can be used to measure latitude.

What is Longitude?

The measurement of any specific location that is East or West of the Prime Meridian, also at Greenwich, is referred to as the longitude. The  Class 6 Chapter 2 Geography Notes help students understand these concepts of Globe Latitudes and Longitudes.

An Overview of Globes, Longitude, and Latitude

There are many different types and sizes of globes, from large ones that can occupy a room to smaller ones that can fit in pockets. One of the main features of a globe is that it can be easily rotated around a fixed point. The globe depicts continents, oceans, and countries, all of which are accurately sized. The globe’s axis is indicated by a needle that is fixed through it in a titled manner.

The two poles, North and South, are the two extreme points that this needle will pass through. The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere are separated by another significant line that runs through the globe. The equator is the name given to this particular line. The equator, according to the NCERT Chapter 2 Geography Class 6 Notes, is essentially just a fictitious, circular line that can be used to pinpoint various locations on the globe. The parallels of latitudes are all the circles that are perpendicular to the equator. These are correctly measured in degrees.

The zero-degree latitude is represented by the equator. The distance between the poles and the equator is roughly one-fourth of the circumference of the planet. As a result, the degree measured would also be one-fourth of the total rotation, or 360 degrees, or 90 degrees. As a result, the North Pole will be approximately 90 degrees north of the North latitude, and the South Pole will be approximately 90 degrees south of the South latitude.For more information, students can consult the Class 6 Geography Notes Chapter 2.

The Parallels of Latitude

Students need to be aware of four distinct and significant parallels of latitude. The Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes contain a description of all the necessary concepts

  1. Tropic of Cancer (23½° N) is located in the Northern Hemisphere.
  2. Tropic of Capricorn (23½° S), which is located in the Southern Hemisphere.
  3. The Arctic Circle is situated 66½° North of the equator.
  4. The Antarctic Circle is situated 66½° South of the equator.

Different Heat Zones Located on the Earth

On Earth, there are different kinds of heat zones. They are discussed below:

Torrid Zones

Since the sun is directly overhead during midday at least once a year, the Torrid Zone is the region that experiences the most heat. Each and every latitude between the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer experiences extremely high temperatures.

Temperature Zones

Places in the Temperate Zone experience moderate temperatures. This is because the sun does not shine overhead during the middle of the day at a particular latitude that is located outside of the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. As a result, the regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres enclosed by these parallel latitudes have a temperate climate.

Frigid Zones

These are the regions or zones that are located between the poles, with the North Pole being closest to the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere and the South Pole being closest to the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere. These areas’ frigid temperatures are because the sun’s rays in these regions frequently have a slant and do not directly shine on them. Therefore, the sun doesn’t rise very high and remains close to the horizon. These regions frequently experience much colder temperatures than anticipated.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Mention the latitudinal value of the Tropic of Cancer.

The Tropic of Cancer has a latitude of 23 12° North.

2. What is our planet's accurate shape?

Our planet actually has a geoid-like shape. In other words, It is shaped like an orange, to put it another way.

3. What exactly can be defined as a globe?

The globe is a three-dimensional model of the planet.

4. Why do we have standard time?

We have standard time because of their positions on the meridian lines. Different countries have different local times. For instance, in India, the local times of Dibrugarh in Assam and Dwarka in Gujarat differ by one hour and forty-five minutes. Therefore, using the local time of a specific meridian makes it necessary to have a standard time. The standard time at this particular meridian is taken to be the standard time for the country, known as the Indian Standard Time (IST), because longitude 82  ½° East is considered to be India’s Standard Meridian.