CBSE Class 6 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 4

Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

CBSE Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes – Maps

An elaborate visual representation of any specific area or segment of the area on a flat surface is called a map. Maps are categorised into various types depending on what they represent. The physical characteristics of an area,  the political borders, the topography, the residents of an area, the natural resources as well as economic activities in the region, and the climate modifications are included in Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

The maps consist of three distinct components, namely, Direction, Distance, and Symbol. Maps are further categorised into various types depending on their derivation, content, and scale. 

Students can refer to Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes for an in-depth understanding of the concepts. Extramarks provides revision notes that are easily accessible from the website. The study of these comprehensive and concise notes increases the overall knowledge of the maps and helps students with the examination. These notes are written by subject matter experts and comply with the revised NCERT guidelines and syllabus. 

Maps Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes

Access Revision Notes for Class 6 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 4 – Maps


A map is an illustration of the earth’s surface or a portion of it drawn on a flat surface to scale.Globes can be used for studying only a portion of the planet like a particular country or state, town, district, or village. Maps are used to study a particular country, state, town, district, or village in detail. 

One of the flaws of maps is that they are drawn on flat surfaces, whereas the earth is round in real life.

A globe looks more like Earth in comparison to a map. Globes are only advantageous for analysing the planet as a whole, whereas maps give in-depth information. 


An atlas is a book filled with maps. It consists of various physical, and political global maps, including maps of different countries, regions,  and states, and statistical and thematic maps for progressive learning and as a source of reference. An atlas helps in searching a location on the globe as well as providing us with a lot of information about that location, like its distance from the Equator,  Poles, or Tropics, closeness to the sea, drainage system, climatic conditions, crops produced, physical attributes, and nearest countries.

Types of Maps

Physical Maps: Physical maps are also known as relief maps. They represent the natural features of the Earth like plains, mountains, plateaus, rivers, oceans, etc.

Political Maps: Maps that represent features like towns, cities, and villages in different countries and states with distinctly characterised borders are known as political maps.

Thematic Maps: Thematic maps highlight a specific bit of data, like roads, rainfall distribution, industries, forest, etc. Titles are given to such maps depending on the information they present.

Components of a Map

The three prominent components of a map are direction, distance, and symbols.


  1. A map is the representation of the Earth on a uniform surface. In other words, it is a concise version of the whole planet or a section of it drawn on a piece of paper. Therefore, it is important to focus on how to depict the distance between two points on a map. This will be helpful in determining the precise distance between those two locations.
  2. Distance is an important factor in the analysis of maps. Distances decide the scales, which are vital for any map.
  3. The rate of actual distance on the ground in comparison to the distance shown on the map is termed a scale.
  4. The scale helps in discovering the real distance between two spots on a map.
  5. Small scales are put to use when large areas like countries or continents are shown on a map. Maps that use these scales are called small-scale maps.
  6. Large scales are put to use when a small region, like a village or town, is shown in great detail on a map. These maps are called large-scale maps.


  1. The four preliminary directions are called cardinal points. These cardinal points are North, South, East, and West.
  2. Four intermediate directions are north-east, north-west, south-east, and south-west.
  3. A compass is used to discover the direction in which a place is located. It is an instrument that ascertains the principal or intermediate directions of one area to another. A compass contains a magnetic needle that points North-South when at rest.
  4. Since ancient times, compasses have been used by travellers and sailors. A compass is a small circular box with a magnetic needle that rotates and shows the direction of any location to the user.


  1. Symbols are applied to maps to make their study easier. They represent features like houses, railway lines, bridges, roads, trees, and other features to be shown on maps. 
  2. Some examples of symbols are colours, letters, drawings, hues, and dotted lines on a map. Water bodies are shown in blue, a plateau is shown in yellow, mountainous areas are shown in brown, and plains and flora are shown in green.


A rough drawing made based on memory and observation of the position is called a sketch. Sketch maps are not made using a scale; they are hand-drawn sketches.


A drawing that shows a small place on a larger scale is a plan. Plans give us a lot of information. For instance, a room’s length and width cannot be shown on a map. Therefore, a plan is used for this purpose.

Do you know?

  1. The analysis of maps is called cartography. Professionals who make and design maps are cartographers. 
  2. In the mid-17th century, geographers used map projection to draw the geoid-shaped Earth on paper or cloth, which is two-dimensional.

There are various other types of maps. Here are a few examples:

Electronic Maps: The advancement of technology has led to cartographers making massive use of computers. They design maps by using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and advanced technology. Electronic maps give more accurate information, like demography, wildlife distribution, and rainfall distribution, in a more detailed manner. For instance, a car equipped with a Global Navigation Satellite System can help guide the user’s route, and satellites can track the user’s location.

Topographic Maps: Topographic maps make it easier for different areas due to the detailed and quantitative portrayal of relief components. Contour lines are applied to show the altitude of a particular region. Landforms and terrain, drainage, populated regions, flora and fauna, administrative regions, transportation facilities, and other features are shown on a large scale.

There are various shapes and sizes of scales. The types of scales are statement, pictorial, and representative fractions.

Representative Fraction: A method that represents a scale of the map is known as a Representative Fraction. It is the ratio between the map distance and the ground distance presented in a fraction.

Graphical Scale: A scale noted down in the form of a statement is known as a Graphical Scale.

Verbal Scale: A scale is made in the figure of a graduated line that shows the proportion of the distance on the map to the ground distance and is considered to be a vertical scale.

Important Questions and Answers

  1. Why is a map more favoured than a globe?

Ans: A globe is a three-dimensional representation of the world, whereas, a map is a two-dimensional representation of the Earth. Nonetheless, maps are more popular than globes, mostly for educational purposes. This is due to the amount of information provided by each. Globes do not give as much in-depth information as maps do. A globe does not show distances due to its curved surface, whereas a map uses a scale to represent these distances. A comparative analysis of two spots is permitted by the use of maps. However, this is not shown on a globe.

  1. State the components of a map.

Ans: The components of a map are as follows.

  • Distance: The foremost component of a map is distance. To evaluate distances, scales are used which are essential for the map study.
  • Directions: Maps consist of four cardinal (North, South, East, and West), and four intermediate (north-east, north-west, south-east, and south-west) directions that make it easier to determine one’s position with the help of another. The direction of a location can be ascertained by compasses.
  • Symbols: Symbols are used to provide a lot of information on a map that has restricted space. The symbols are made by using colours, pictures, lines, shades, etc., to highlight certain features like roads, buildings, trees, bridges, and railway lines.
  1. What is the difference between the cardinal and intermediate directions?

Ans: The four main directions that are North, South, East, and West are called the cardinal directions. There are four more directions between the two cardinal directions. They are called intermediate directions. Intermediate directions are north-west, north-east, south-east, and south-west. Both the cardinal and intermediate directions help in finding a location.

  1. Explain a sketch map.

Ans: A drawing that primarily depends on memory and spot monitoring, not on a scale, is a sketch. This is a rough representation that helps its user to reach a specific region or place. For instance, you plan to visit your friend’s house, but you are unaware of the way. A rough drawing can be made by your friend to guide the way to his house. This rough drawing is made without scale and is known as a sketch map.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are conventional symbols?

The symbol is the third-most significant component of a map. On a map, it is not feasible to draw the real shape and size of various features like roads, buildings, bridges, railway lines, trees, a well, etc. The earlier features are represented by specific letters, pictures, shades, colours, and lines. Maps have restricted space, so symbols are used as they provide more data. Some specific symbols are drawn on the maps so that they can be read easily. One can gather sufficient data from maps with the assistance of these symbols, even if they are in an unfamiliar area or face language barriers with the native people. Maps are easy to study for everyone as they have a universal language. An international agreement related to the use of these symbols exists. These are known as conventional symbols.

2. What is a map?

A drawing or representation of the surface of the Earth or a portion of it on a flat surface with reference to a scale is a map. A round shape is difficult to draw completely on a flat surface.

3. What are the different types of maps?

Maps are categorised into different types. They are mentioned below.

  • Physical or relief maps: Maps representing natural features present on the Earth like plateaus, mountains, rivers, plains, oceans, etc., are known as physical or relief maps.
  • Political maps: Maps representing towns, cities, villages, distinct countries, and the world’s states with their borders are known as political maps.

Thematic maps: A few maps depict particular information, like road maps, rainfall maps, industries, maps representing the segregation of forests, etc. These maps are called thematic maps.

4. What is a scale? State the difference between small-scale maps and large-scale maps.

The proportion of the distance displayed on the map to the real distance on the ground is considered to be scale. 

Small-scale map: We use a small-scale map for displaying large areas on paper, like continents or countries. For instance, on the map, 5 cm represents 500 km of ground. This map is known as a small-scale map.

Large-scale map: A large-scale map is used to display a small area, like a village or town, on paper. On a map, 5 cm represents only 500 metres on the ground.

Large-scale maps are preferred for detailed study as they provide more information in comparison to small-scale maps.