CBSE Class 6 Social Science Geography Revision Notes Chapter 6

Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes

CBSE Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes – Major Landforms of the Earth

Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes have been crafted by subject matter experts according to the revised CBSE guidelines and syllabus. These Class 6 Notes on Major Landforms of the Earth are straightforward, thorough, and useful resources for students to refer to while preparing for the exams. 

Major Landforms of the Earth Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes

Access Class 6 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 6 – Major Landforms Of The Earth – Notes

The surface of the Earth is different in different regions. It is level in some places, uneven in others, elevated in some, and plain in others. These observable topographical variations form mountains, plateaus, and plains, which are collectively referred to as landforms.

Various land features are created by natural forces that significantly influence how the Earth’s surface is shaped. For example, when the two plates move towards each other at convergent plate boundaries then because of the compression, the rocks and the land surfaces of the two plates get folded and form fold mountains.

Erosion refers to the process wherein the upper layer of the surface is worn away by natural forces like wind and water. Deposition, on the other hand, refers to the process where the eroded materials are spread out and form a landform.

  1. Major Landforms

On the surface of the Earth, there are primarily three different types of landforms: mountains, plateaus, and plains.


Mountains are defined as naturally elevated landforms with a conical shape (with a peak and a broad base). The mountains are typically more than a thousand metres above sea level. Therefore, places in mountains experience low temperatures due to their high average altitude.

Based on how they were formed, mountains can be further divided into three main categories.

Fold Mountain: Fold mountains are created by the folding of rock strata as a result of compression. For example, the Aravalli range in India, the Appalachians in North America, and the Urals in Russia. Their ranges have diminished over time due to erosion.

Block Mountain: A fault is created when a location’s rock strata are broken. As a result, the landmass known as the horst now rises between two parallel faults, and the block that is thrown down between the two fault blocks is referred to as the graben or rift valley. This can be seen in the Rhineland Vosges and the Black Forest. The Rhine rift valley is located between the Vosges Rifts and the Black Forest.

Volcanic Mountain: The term “volcanic mountain” refers to mountains that are formed by the repeated accumulation of volcanic materials such as lava, magma, volcanic ash, and dust around the vent. Volcanic mountains include Mount Fujiyama in Japan and Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa.

The mountains are the source of the majority of rivers. Since mountains are the highest landforms on Earth, there are several regions where rivers are permanently frozen. They are called glaciers. In some cases, mountains are found underwater. Sometimes, mountains, particularly fold mountains, have parallel ranges that exist in a straight line. They are known as ranges.

Importance of Mountains

  • Many rivers originate from mountains with glaciers. Water from glaciers flows continuously into rivers. This water helps crops to grow, and supplies power to dams to generate hydroelectricity, among other things.
  • Mountain areas have dense forests that supply softwood and hardwood for furniture, some medicinal herbs, and a haven for wildlife and birds.
  • Mountains are popular tourist destinations because they provide breathtaking scenery, and some remain snow-covered all year. This helps expand the tourism sector of the region. 
  1. Plateaus

Plateaus are larger upland regions. A plateau has a flat top that resembles a table raised above the surrounding area. As a result, it is also known as tablelands with steep sides. They are located at a height of more than 300 metres above sea level. There are different heights for plateaus. An example is the Tibetan Plateau, which is also the highest plateau in the world.It is also known as the “roof of the world.”The Deccan Plateau and the Chota Nagpur Plateau are two other examples of plateaus.

Importance of the Plateaus:

  1. Mineral resources are plentiful on plateaus. Because of this, mining is one of the primary industries in this area. India’s Chota Nagpur plateau is rich in iron, coal, and manganese, while the African plateau has gold and diamonds.
  2. Because the rivers that originate in the mountains here flow from great heights, they create waterfalls that draw tourists.
  3. Lava-formed plateaus have rich, black soil that is ideal for growing cotton.
  4. Plains 

Lowland regions that are less than 200 m above sea level are referred to as the plains. They are created through deforestation and deposition brought about by rivers, winds, etc. Some of its examples include the vast plains of the rivers Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra.

Importance of the Plains:

Plains are appropriate for habitation.

  1. Since the river is moving down the mountains, it carries the materials that have been eroded and dump them on the plains. As a result, the plains are abundant in fertile silt that is suitable for farming.
  2. The flatlands are suitable for building roads and railroads.
  3. Buildings for human habitation are simpler to construct on plains.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why are mountains important to us?

Mountains offer many advantages that are important for survival. Mountains, for instance, are an important source of freshwater. This water has numerous applications. Water from the mountains is employed in both hydroelectric power production and agriculture. Numerous other well-liked activities, including paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting, and skiing, are supported by the mountains. Mountains provide a habitat for a diverse range of plants and animals. Moreover, mountains offer sights of attraction for tourists.

2. What are plains?

A plain landform is a sizable area of the level, sweeping terrain with minimal height variation. It is fairly level, and its height does not vary much within a common area, i.e., its height is lower than the surrounding landmass. This type of landform can be found both inland and along the shore. There are many different kinds of plains, including uplands, valley bottoms, and coastal plains. One of the four main types of landforms that cover the Earth is the plains.

3. Which major landforms can be found on Earth?

Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains are the four main categories of landforms. Buttes, canyons, valleys, and basins are some typical examples of minor landforms. Landforms are produced by natural forces, which lead to the deposition and erosion of land resources. For example, tectonic plates shift beneath the surface of the Earth and push mountains and hills upward. A mountain is any naturally occurring elevation that exists on the Earth’s surface. Fold Mountains, Block Mountains, and Volcanic Mountains are the three different types of mountains. A plateau is a flat-topped tableland that rises above its surroundings, as the name suggests. For more information, students can access the Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes from the website.