CBSE Class 6 Social Science History Revision Notes Chapter 10

Class 6 History Chapter 10 Notes

CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 10 Notes – New Empires and Kingdom

Class 6 History Chapter 10 depicts a fascinating period in Indian history. It describes the empires and kingdoms that arose after the Mauryas’ decline. The rise of the Gupta Dynasty, followed by the rise of many other small kingdoms, shaped history.

The Chalukyas, Satavahanas, Pallavas, and other prominent names were found in the Deccan region of the Indian subcontinent. Students can learn about the different rulers and dynasties by consulting the New Empires and Kingdoms Class 6 Notes. They will also learn the important names of those who ruled various parts of our country.

Extramarks Revision Notes for Class 6 History Chapter 10 that are concise and clear for students to revise efficiently before examinations. They are compiled and reviewed by subject matter experts to ensure the accuracy of the notes. These notes are available on the website for ease of access.

New Empires and Kingdom Class 6 Notes History Chapter 10

Access Class 6 Social Science (History) Chapter 10-New Empires and Kingdom

New Empires and Kingdom

The notable stories of rulers and realms can be found in various engravings and sonnets written in the court of lords.

People were made aware of the ruler Samudragupta’s brilliance through long engravings and verses written in Sanskrit. This information was later recorded on the Ashokan column in Allahabad.

Samudragupta’s Prashasti (Inscription)

Prashasti was a distinct type of engraving. It is a Sanskrit phrase that means “in recognition of.” It is made of extremely long sentences.

Harishena, the court’s writer, wrote Samudragupta’s. He realised from the engraving that he talked about four types of rulers and Samudragupt’s strategies toward them.

Harishena stated that Samadrugupta dominated the leaders of Aryavarta, Dakshinapatha, Gana Sangha, Kushan, and Shakas, as well as the leaders of Sri Lanka.

The author praised the lord as a warrior who conquered many lands and won many battles.

Harishena’s sonnet portrayed the Lord’s majesty by expressing that there were many scars caused by fighting with tomahawks, lances, darts, lances, spikes, arrows, bolts and other similar weapons.


Prashasti, or engraving, also alluded to the rulers’ forefathers.

Samudragupta’s engraving tells the story of his great-grandfather, grandfather, father, and mother.

Chandragupta was the father of Samudragupta and the main leader of the Gupta line. Kumara Devi shared a home with Lichchhavi Gana.

In the engraving, Chandragupta of the Gupta line was given the title of Maharaja-Adhiraja. Previously, his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather were only referred to as maharajas. These ancestors clearly show how the family’s rise to power occurred gradually.

The engravings and coins depict the triumph and life of Samudragupta’s son, Chandragupta II.

During his campaign in the western parts of India, Chandragupta II defeated the Shakas.

The court of Chandragupta II was brimming with renowned people, such as the writer Kalidasa. He made a significant commitment to Chandragupta’s  court and engaging him. In addition, the court included the astronomer Aryabhata.

Harshavardhana and Harshacharita

There are no engravings or coins that tell the stories of specific rulers, such as Lord Harshavardhana. It is mostly known from their biographies.

The court poet Banabhatta wrote the biographies of King Harshavardhana. Harshacharita is the name of the biography, which was written in Sanskrit. The biography also includes King Harshavardhana’s genealogies.

Following the deaths of his father and elder brother, Harshavardhana became the ruler of Thaneswar. Later, after defeating the leader of Bengal, he became the ruler of Kanauj and expanded his empire in the East, conquering both Magadha and Bengal.Nonetheless, the Lord did not achieve much success in various parts of the mainland.

Harshavardhana reigned approximately 1400 years ago. The court of Harshavardhana was named after Xuan Zang, a famous Chinese pilgrim who visited the Indian subcontinent.

While attempting to cross the Narmada river and Deccan plateau, he was stopped by Pulakeshin II, the leader of the Chalukya administration.

The Pallavas, Chalukyas, and Pulakeshin’s Prashasti

The Pallavas and the Chalukyas were two important administrations in South India at the time.

The Pallava territory was centred around their capital, Kanchipuram, and extended all the way to the Kaveri delta. The Chalukyas concentrated their efforts in and around Raichur Doab, which was located in the middle of the waterways of the rivers Tungabhadra and Krishna.

The capital of the Chalukyas was a significant trading centre. It was later built as a strict focus with various sanctuaries.

The two administrations frequently attacked each other’s prosperous towns, particularly the capital.

Pulakeshin II was the best leader of the Chalukya line. The engraving composed by his court artist, Ravikirti, contains numerous references to Pulakeshin II and his triumph.

The engraving, or Prashasti, depicts the four ages from father to child and expresses his uncle’s gift of the realm to Pulakeshin. He also led campaigns on both the Western and Eastern coasts.

He defeated Lord Harshavardhana and took control of the Pallava lineage. However, this triumph was short-lived, as both lines were overthrown by new leaders of the Rashtrakuta and Chola lines.

How were the Kingdoms Administered?

The land revenue and villages served as the primary administrative units for both the new and old rulers.

The most recent development in the administration process was the king’s adoption of new methods to gain the support of the rich and powerful in terms of economic, social, and political conditions.

Some administrative positions were hereditary, such as Harishena’s position as chief judicial officer, which he inherited from his father. In addition, some officers held multiple positions. Harishena was not only the chief judicial officer, but also an important minister of war and peace.

Influential men in the kingdom could participate in local administrative decision-making. These men were similar to the city’s chief banker, merchant, leader,  merchant of caravans, scribes, or  top craftsmen.

The king tried the strategy of gaining the support of the rich and powerful men of the kingdom. But it was impractical as he majority of influential people eventually established their kingdom.

The New Form of Army

During this period (and prior), rulers maintained an effective armed force.

It included chariots, elephants, infantry, cavalry, and chariots.

Drummers, trumpeters, and horn players joined the armed forces.

When the ruler needed troops, he went to the military leaders, who were given land awards for their services instead of cash rewards.

Assemblies in the Southern Kingdoms

Numerous regional assemblies are mentioned in the Pallava inscriptions.

Sabha, Ur, and Nagaram were the three gatherings.

The Sabha consulted with Brahmin landowners and worked with subcommittees. They used to look after water systems, horticultural tasks, building streets, nearby sanctuaries, and similar tasks.

The Ur was the gathering place for non-Brahmin residents.

The Nagaram was a gathering of dealers, and as such, it was restricted by wealthy and unique vendors and landowners.

Some of the nearby congregations continued to work for an extended period of time.

Ordinary People of the Kingdom

There is very little information available about the existence of ordinary people. Everything we know about them comes from plays and other historical records.

Kalidasa was known for his plays which  depicted life in the king’s court.

Through these plays, it was demonstrated that only the King and Brahmins spoke in Sanskrit, while everyone else spoke in Prakrit.

Abhijnana Shakuntalam was a well-known play based on the love story of a young lady named Shakuntala and a ruler named Dushyanta. Similarly, this play depicts the difficulties of helpless fisherfolk.

The plight of needy people has also been mentioned in the written work of Chinese Pilgrim Fa Xian. He mentioned how the rich and powerful in the city abused the untouchables. They had to live on the outskirts of town.

Important Questions and Answers

Q.Give a brief note on Harshavardhana and Harshacharita.

Ans. Harshavardhana was Thaneswar’s ruler 1400 years ago.He was not the family’s oldest child, and he ascended the throne after the deaths of his father and elder brother. Furthermore, when the ruler of Bengal murdered his brother by marriage, Harshavardhana took control of Kanauj and led a military campaign against the ruler of Bengal. He also conquered Magadha, Bengal, and parts of the East.Nonetheless, he was stopped by Pulakeshin II, a significant leader of the Chalukya line, when attempting to cross the Narmada waterway into Deccan.Harshacharita is a Sanskrit account of Harshavardhana written by the court’s artist, Banabhatta.

Q.Describe the administration of northern Indians under Harshavardhana and the Guptas.

Ans. Certain administrative features remained constant during the reigns of Harshavardhana and the Guptas. For example, in the Gupta and Harshavardhana dynasties, land revenue was given significant importance, and the basic unit of administration was the village. However, there were some changes in administration, such as the support of lords and feudalism. The rulers followed and maintained various procedures to gain political and military support from powerful lords and feudals. They accomplished this through either social or economic agendas. Furthermore, some administrative positions were hereditary, and one person could sometimes control multiple offices. The rise of a new kingdom and the formation of a new type of army were two significant changes that occurred during this period.

Q.Briefly describe the Gupta Dynasty.

Ans. The Gupta line ruled over a large portion of the subcontinent from the mid to late 3rdc century CE to 543 CE. There were distinct Gupta rule lines. For example, the majority of the Prashasti or engravings referred to the ruler’s predecessor. The Gupta tradition was founded by Chandragupta-I. Through the Prashastis, it is perceived that Samudragupta’s incredible grandfather was essentially referred to as a Maharaja, and the significance of the family gradually developed. Chandragupta II led an expedition to the western parts of India, where he defeated the remaining Shakas. His court was filled with scholars such as the writer Kalidas and the astronomer Aryabhata.

Q.Describe the assemblies of the Southern kingdoms.

Ans. There were three types of congregations in the South. One was the Sabha, a neighbourhood gathering of Brahmin landowners. This group was in charge of the water system, agricultural activities, nearby sanctuaries, street construction, and other similar tasks. The Ur was the second most-important group formed. It was a town gathering made up of non-Brahmin landowners. The Nagaram was the third and largest gathering. This gathering included traders, so only the rich and incredible had access to the benefits in this gathering

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How do we learn about different kings and emperors?

The court poets composed Prashastis and biographies of the rulers. These Prashastis were written in modern language to depict the lifestyle and decisions of contemporary kings. Historians use these Prashastis to learn more about the historical period. They use stone anecdotes to learn about empires and kingdoms.

2. What is the difference between a kingdom and an empire?

Empires are considered to be more powerful than kingdoms. Emperors built their empires by conquering kingdoms and incorporating them into their ruled borders. For example, Harshavardhan was an emperor who defeated Magadha’s ruler, who was a king.